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Def. of attitudes
Favorable or unfavorable evaluations of people, objects, and ideas exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior
What are ABCs of attitudes?
ABCs of attitudes in action with "attitudes toward Nazis: affect
*I feel disgust towards Nazis
ABCs of attitudes in action with "attitudes toward Nazis: behavior
*I will not sit next to a Nazi on a bus
ABCs of attitudes in action with "attitudes toward Nazis: cognition
I think that Nazis are ignorant and submissive
What affects or causes our attitudes?
What are cognitively based attitudes?
Attitudes based primarily on one's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
*I like my social psych professor bc he gets best teaching evaluations
What are affectively based attitudes?
- Attitudes based more on feelings and values than on cognitions
- *I like color red
- * I want this car
Attitudes based on observations of how one behaves towards an attitude object
-I spend my time surrounded with social psych therefore I must like it alot
Foot in door technique?
Agreeing to a small commitments frequently leads to larger commitments
Foot in door study
Half people that put up signs at first request ended up putting larger signs than if they haven't agreed
Door in the face technique
make an extremely large request then follow up with a smaller reasonable request
How does door in the face technique work?
Through reciprocity because it creates a large debt that the second request offers to clear it
ABCs example of snakes
-cognition: dangerous !
How can reported attitudes be influenced by?
Social desirability concerns
What does research say about attitudes predicting behavior?
Attitudes are poor predictors of behaviors
Attitudes poor predictor of behaviors) study lapiere and Chinese couple
Most restaurants said they would refuse service to Chinese couples but when they arrived only 1 restaurant went through with their beliefs
When do attitudes guide behavior?
Factors that lead to attitude behavior correspondence
Do attitudes ever guide behavior) 4 examples of attitude-behavior correspondence
-real vs expressed attitudes
-one instance vs aggregate
-when attitude is made salient (noticeable)
-look at attitudes that are specific to the behavior
Do attitudes ever guide behavior) 4 examples of attitude-behavior correspondence: real vs expressed attitudes
- Measured attitude may not be a persons true attitude so the key is to convince them that machine can measure hidden attitudes then they'll be more truthful
- *bogus pipeline
Do attitudes ever guide behavior) 4 examples of attitude-behavior correspondence: one instance vs aggregate (2)
-sports stats, religious behavior
Do attitudes ever guide behavior) 4 examples of attitude-behavior correspondence: when attitude is made noticeable (salient) ) (2)
Ask people to consider their attitudes or make them self conscious
Do attitudes ever guide behavior) 4 examples of attitude-behavior correspondence: look at attitudes that are specific to the behavior
Do you like Thai food instead of do you like going out to eat
Do attitudes ever guide behavior) 4 examples of attitude-behavior correspondence: attitudes that are specific to the behavior
-the more specific the attitude question the more likely it is to predict the relevant behavior
What are explicit attitudes? (2)
-can easily report
What are implicit attitudes
- Involuntary, uncontrollable, and often unconscious
- *IAT test
What does the IAT do?
method to measure implicit attitudes
Where do attitudes come from?) what is classical conditioning?
Stimulus that elicits an emotional response is paired with neutral stimulus until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus
Where do attitudes come from?) what does classical conditioning usually lead to?
Affectively based attitudes
Where do attitudes come from?) what is operant conditioning?
Behaviors that people freely choose to perform increase or decrease in frequency depending on whether they are followed by positive reinforcement or punishment
Where do attitudes come from?) what does operant conditioning usually lead to?
Behavioral based attitudes
Where do attitudes come from?
Where do attitudes come from?) learning: (4)
- -reinforcement and punishment
- *operant conditioning
What are the 2 ways attitude changes can occur?
Quick summary on central route (2)
-thoughtfully made decision
Quick summary on peripheral route (2)
-thoughtlessly made decision
When do we deep process?
When we have both the motivation and ability to do so
When do we shallow process?
When we are distracted or uninvolved thus we look for surface cues and heuristics
How do attitudes change?) what are 2 factors that influence persons motivation to process a message central route?
-personal relevance of the topic
- -need for cogntiion
- *tendency to enjoy and engage in deliberate thought
Formula for central route
Message> high motivation> deep processing> lasting change
Formula for peripheral route
Message> low motivation> superficial processing> temporary change