Islam Midterm

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norggirl
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286136
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Islam Midterm
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2014-10-27 21:10:12
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Religion
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Midterm for Islam
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  1. Khalifa
    • at first they saw selfs as religious authority
    • but fighting, spread out, many authorities undermined this--> became political
    • first 4 rightly guided caliphs, thought to be said by mohammad
  2. Husayn
    • revolted against caliph Yazid, Mu'awyia's son. first time a caliph was from the same family. legitimizes heritarty rule for the future
    • all caliphs before had come from kuyyash
    • he was the second son of Ali mother was daughter of Muhammad
    • The tragedy in Karbala has had an impact on religious conscience of Muslims beyond its sacredness among Shiites.[9] In the long term, the cruel killings at Karbala became an example of the brutality of the Umayyads and fueled the later Shiite movements.[10] Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine and ultimately overthrow the Umayyad Caliphate.
    • when death of leader is so important create a relies movement: he impacted their foundation of beliefs
  3. Hadith
    • over 200,000 in world
    • everyone suspicious of other Hadith
    • Associated with what muhammad said- right way to be a muslim
    • Bukhari
    • Muslims go to hadith to find things that justify their actions, find meaning. Prophet said it was enough to....
    • encyclopedia of Islam, source of sharia law
    • issues of transmition
    • communal solidarity, not about understanding but being there
    • to understand what the Quran meant
    • Hadith Quadsi to abrogate what the qur'an said
  4. Dome of the Rock
    • built by Abd al-Malik
    • place of pilgrimage to replace Mecca
    • rival the church
    • earliest examples from the qur'an
    • to show supremacy of islam
    • caliph of islam who rebuilds the Temple (Judaism).
  5. Sunni:
    • islam has to be based on teaching of mohamed
    • then companions
    • then caliphs
  6. Shafiʿi
    • School of thought in Sunnism
    • most influential-casue very defined system
    • go to the sunna cause came form revelation, inspiration of god
    • Five-points system became basis for sunni principles of Jurisprudence
    • all books of "sound and Authentic" Hadith were compiled after al-shafi'i
    • bullied everyone into following
    • Formulated procedure of legal reasoning against preference or personal deduction "Five Points:"
    • 1 follow sunna of muhammad, come from god. most important, can't interpret the Qur'an without it
    • 2 qur'an which cannot contradict sunna
    • 3 Ijma' (consensus) of Muslims
    • 4 Qiyas (anology)
    • 5 Systematic Reasoning
  7. ʿAbd al-Malik
    • built dome of rock, to say I'm the only caliph defining islam
    • change of coin system, arabization,
    • What the caliph does is gods will, made sholars declare him "Gods Caliph" your the perfect person, can't be questioned, receive inspiration
    • after long civil wars, empire was reunited under him
    • had to fight off other claims to caliph
    • pushed for strict reforms- fighting other muslims
    • big presence in Jerusulm-distroyed the Ka'ba
  8. 622 CE
    year Mohammad and his followers moved to Medina
  9. Muʿtazila
    • first theologians in Islam, (from Qadariyya movement) argumentation and logic into islamic religious thought. reason as source of human knowledge. 5 principles:
    • Justice of god:free will
    • Qur'an is created
    • Unity of God: de-anthropormorphism
    • Reality of Judgement day
    • Obligation to Command Righ and Forbid Wrong
  10. Occultation
    • In Shi'ism belief that last Imam, Al-Mahdi is in Occultation(hiding)
    • lesser Oc: imam hidden from world. communicates through deputies
    • Greater Oc: Imam no longer communicates with world. God determines end of Occultation and return of Imam
    • return of Imam: before day of judgment
  11. Maslaha
    • in sunnite law and morality
    • condition in with the law is not obligatory: maslaha (public good)
  12. Qiyas
    • Analogy: where use compare case to another similar looking case.
    • In Shafi'i School of Sunnism
    • not in Hanbali school
  13. Muʿawiya
    • declared caliph in Umayyad dynasty.
    • his sister had married Mohammed
  14. Imam (in Shiʿism)
    • religious/political leader must be from the house of Ali
    • guide to his followers and proof of existence of god
    • receives inspiration from god hens infallible
    • world cannot exist without Imam, Imams designated by god from beginning of creation
    • authority comes from Imam
    • based on linniage
    • most dominant sect said the caliphs ended at 12, the 12 in occultation
  15. Sunna
    many Muslims came to see Muhammad as the perfect man, therefore one has to follow his model or way of life (sunna). companions as holy figures
  16. Abrogating & Abrogated
    • Abrogation: undoing
    • god intended scripture to be fluid, moving, god allows something at first than says something else abrogating what he said earlier
    • god speaking in first persons, or mohammad saying something
    • these are Hadith Quadsi
    • a muslim can't live with the acceptance that the quran has contradictions-thus hadith must be something God said
  17. 'Uthman
    3rd caliph. ordered the collection of the qur'an in 650. not put together chronologically
  18. Kaʿba
    • in Mecca, said to be built by adam and eve, place of pilgrimage before Islam.
    • Birth of monotheism
  19. 610 CE
    year of Emergence, when Mohammad received the first revelations
  20. Qibla
    direction of prayer. during the consolidation of the muslim community, formation of islam as a religion
  21. Fitra
    • the way you were shaped, without sin. Curruption is environmental, from your parents, others.
    • constantly remember god so remember how not to sin
    • Big issue is how you will look on judgement day
  22. Tariqa
    • founded by rumi
    • mystical practices and teachings of an individual Sufi master and his/her followers
  23. Fana & Baqa
    • Introduced by Junayd, first major sufi scholar in Islam
    • doctrine.
    • goal is to vanish into god to become eternal with god
    • but still need to comeback and help you community
  24. Kasab
    • al-ash'ari, sunni
    • rejected the Mu'tazila idea freewill 
    • predestination with the notion of Kasab (acquisition) 
    • go creates the power for people to act at the moment of action but he knows what the action will be
    • if accepts free will then undermining gods power
    • God creates the power for people to act at the moment of action (God being the only one who actually has the power to create), yet the individual is responsible for all he or she does.
    • people “acquire” the ramifications of their actions, perhaps to be thought of as similar to the workings of the “conscience” in modern terminology.
    •  “No human act can occur without His willing it, because that would imply that it occurred out of carelessness and neglect or out of weakness and inadequacy on His part to effect what He wills”
  25. AL-Maturidi
    • differs from ash'ari theology
    • prophets are not essential. (turk) knowledge of god before profits
    • greater tendency toward inprepretation
    • reason is the way to know the existence of god
    • partial human free will: humans have control over their evil disposition
    • sources: qur'an, sunna and reason
    • helped promote sunset mysticism
    • outgrowth of Haifa's stance
    • the idea of the free will of humanity, although God is the only creator and He creates the actions of His creation
    • using the same notion as al-Ashʿarī of individuals “acquiring” their actions, al-Māturīdī suggests that this acquisition is connected to the choice or intention which precedes an act.
    • different from al-Ashʿarī's sense of acquisition being the contemporaneous coming into possession of the capacity to act at the time of the action.
    • only two states exist: having faith or not having faith

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