intro to theater

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intro to theater
2014-10-19 14:43:41
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  1. representational
    realistic no acknowledgement of audience
  2. presentational
    awareness of audience, of performance (greek plays, addressing audience)
  3. climax
    changing direction of action (middle, complications)
  4. douement
    final resolution of play
  5. effective dramatic action
    • complete and self contained
    • deliberate shape or organization that reveals purpose
    • variety
    • engage and maintain interest
    • internal consistency
  6. organizing dramatic action
    • cause and effect
    • all events focused on one character
    • theme
  7. dramatic structure
    • beginning: (exposition, bkgr) point of attack (is the starting point of action)
    • middle: complications climax
    • end (resolution)
  8. poetics
    • written by aristotle (tries to categorize the arts)
    • he also tried to characterize tragedy
  9. aristotle's six elements of tragedy
    • plot
    • character
    • theme
    • diction
    • music
    • spectacle
  10. City Dionysia
    • festival in honor of Dionysus with theatrical performances in Athens (show wealth)
    • several days
    • procession reenactment of Dionysus arrival into city
    • held under supervision of principle magistrate
    • 3 days dramatists presents 3 tragedies (poke fun of politicians)
    • 2 other days were dithyrambic contests
  11. principle magistrate of City Dionysus
    archon eponymos (buys nice customs for shows)
  12. dithyramb
    hymn sung and danced in honor of dionysus
  13. catastrophe
    fall from high place (imitation of action)
  14. protagonist
    carrier of action
  15. peripetia
    reversal of fortune
  16. anagnonsis
    recognition (discovery when downfall happens)
  17. purgation of pity/fear
    catharsis (releasing from strong or repressed emotions)
  18. components of greek drama
    • all male, masked, voice and declamation, 3 speaking roles
    • chorus: entered in march, sand and danced in unison
    • music: flute with recitative passages
    • mask
  19. structure of greek comedy
    • prologue (exposition point of attack)
    • parodos: chorus enter (gather at enter stage)
    • episode: speaking of major characters take place
    • stasimon: chorus sings without metrical foot
    • exodus
  20. Stanislavsky system
    • body and voice of actor trained
    • skilled in observing reality
    • stage technique: project characters without sense of artificially
    • call on emotional memory
    • actor need to know its role in relation to whole play and in relation to other characters
    • invent details he believes in truth
    • complete understanding of play
    • continues to work to perfect himself
    • concentrate on projecting truth of stage situation
  21. differences between external and internal approaches to acting
    • external: presentational (awareness of performance)-->imitative (angry without feeling angry), skills (dancing, etc)
    • internal: representational approach role from inside out
  22. actor's instruments
    body, voice, imagination, concentration, psychological responsiveness (take risks in characteristics), flexibility
  23. actor training methods
    • through college, theater companies, institutes, conservatory, individual classes
    • they train you by exercises:
    • breathing
    • concentration
    • improvisation (theater games to break down inhibitions, build self confidence, foster ensemble)
    • scene work (analyze script break down into beats)
    • voice classes
    • movement classes
    • specialized work (fight choreography), period styles, dance, singing
  24. actors' equity association
    stage actors: american labor union
  25. zadacha
    task or chore in Russian, need to know what the character is hoping to achieve by having that done.
  26. stage business
    part of actors' movement on stage (combing hair, to emphasize or subordinate)
  27. difference between old and new greek comedy
    • old: criticize power dynamics of Athens and Spartans, satirical (complaints)
    • New: romantic and domestic problems of middle class (nonpolitical)
  28. parabasis
    chorus speaks directly to audience
  29. new comedy
    • chorus diminished
    • passages often had little connection with incidents in play (silly interlude)
    • miser characters (Don't want to give away money)
    • things come together in the end
    • women calling the shots
    • parody
    • repartee
    • loss of control 
    • no serious consequences
  30. elizabethan public theaters vs private
    • open air
    • constructed outside the city limits (the globe)
    • private was indoor and expensive to exclude people (blackfriars)
  31. thrust stage
    audience on three sides
  32. producer
    • financial and managerial tasks (responsible to investors, chooses play)
    • influences artistic decisions
  33. director
    • interprets the significance and defines focus
    • casts, rehearses with performers, works with designers
    • integrate all elements into finished product
  34. production concept
    • is a short statement conveying the director's vision, which becomes an organizational tool for team
    • director may distill his/her interpretation of the play into a production concept
  35. approaches to directing
    • literal transfer
    • translator: capture spirit of script
    • auteur: free to reshape (director is the principal creative force, eliminates playwright.
  36. elizabethan acting troupes
    • professional troupes: adult troupes sharing system (all males)
    • acting troupes: shareholders (actors are part owners of the company), put in$, 3 year commitment, self governing, democratic body, additional responsibilities, strict rules of conduct, touring
    • licensing of companies and plays
  37. director's role
    • read plays, note structure patterns, divide plays into segments
    • note emotions or images inspired by script
    • define the spine that holds the play together
    • note scenic, costumes, lighting
    • study characters
  38. what are the director's means
    • stage image 
    • visual composition
    • voice
    • movement of actors
  39. what are components of visual composition for the director to consider?
    staging, space, position of actors (bodily positions, hierarchy, spatial relationships, visual forcuses (freeze-shift focus)
  40. arena stage
    surrounded on all four sides
  41. proscenium arch
    • has fly system, drapes, scenic pieces
    • used for scenery and illusion
  42. tragedy
    inevitable consequences, serious (makes demands upon us), should be clear (unambiguous), characters are looking to find solutions.
  43. orchestra
    in front of stage, reserved for chorus
  44. skene
    backstage area with doors (change outfit and masks)
  45. Teatro Olimpico
    neoclassical design using perspectives scenery
  46. what is perspectives scenery?
    • movable things
    • backdrop (shutters)
    • borders to mask top of scene
  47. Torelli
    italian stage designers, engineer and architect for scenery changes
  48. pole and chariot system
    torelli where scenic units could be changed simultaneously by changing the wings and shutters through connection below the stage
  49. what are the soft scenery pieces?
    drop, drapes, scrim, cyclorama
  50. what are framed units?
    doors, flat, screens
  51. what is the function of drops?
    enclose scenes in the back, create depth where scenes can be painted
  52. what is a flat
    • timber frames covered with scenic canvases or other materials, painted or treated
    • types (with or without opening of doors, silhouette
  53. scrim
    • curtain of gauze (opaque when lighted only from the front)
    • transparent when light from behind
  54. cyclorama
    • undecorated surface surrounds stage area on three sides
    • surface for projection
  55. realistic vs. metaphoric design
    • realistic (representational)-->box scene
    • metaphoric (presentational)
  56. drops
    decorative, canvas or cloth, enclose settings, providing painting surface
  57. drape
    • neutral scenery
    • mask area (backstage, lighting instruments)
    • stage curtain
  58. 3-D units
    • platforms
    • ramps
    • steps
    • columns
    • trees/rocks
  59. the set
    everything visible on stage
  60. scenic unit
    • standing units (structural elements that may be combined to form a larger set)-->walls, section of a room
    • able to be shifted
  61. function of set design
    • scenic design delineate the performance space 
    • provide clue to nature of space
    • convey time, place, geographical location
    • imply social status
    • hint at potential action
    • provide unified interpretation consistent with director
  62. design research
    • understand the cultural and historical contexts (background)-->practical space for production , everything needed for play is there to create a believable feeling
    • conceptual: help to convey mood and intent of the script (not related specific to time and place)
  63. set pieces
    • has symbolic or thematic structure
    • may be functional prop
    • not piece of set
  64. costume function
    • indicate world of play (time period, place, importance of certain characters)
    • define character (age/gender, character psychology, status)
    • reenforce style and function of production (metaphorical, symbolic, etc)
    • be functional on stage
  65. costume research
    • research on material (old photographs, art history, catalogs, paintings)
    • process (reading script, analyze characters, preliminary sketches, analyze movement of actors)
  66. costume renderings
    • picture of costumes on "actors"
    • of each costume in color with fabric swatches (how you light costumes)
  67. costume variables
    • silhouette (outer shape of costume)
    • color (effect on viewer, symbolic associations)
    • texture (what it looks like)
    • accent (buttons, bows, lace)
  68. function of makeup
    • characterization (race, age, attitude)
    • aid expressiveness (visible to audience)
    • compensate for stage lighting
    • stylized performances (specialized)
  69. makeup plot
    chart for makeup (actor applies own makeup can do that)
  70. character makeup
    change character's appearance
  71. prosthetics
    neck, nose, stuck on face.
  72. lighting score
    breaks play into scenes or units that shows the lighting of each scene, the type, size, position of each instrument
  73. lighting plot
    floor plans (top view) type, size, and position of instrument
  74. gobo
    lighting filter that creates leaves
  75. lighting that can withstand heat
  76. box set
    proscenium arch with three wall, illusion of interior room
  77. instrument schedule
    chart of which type of light is used and where it is hung
  78. sound cue
    when what music starts
  79. sound score
    function, duration, when to use, origin of sound and intended treatments
  80. technical rehearsal
    • end of rehearsal process
    • run focused on technical elements
    • ensure proper functioning of each
    • lengthy process: make adjustments
    • cue to cue "slow movement through lighting cue
  81. stage manager
    • schedule and run rehearsals
    • go between
    • notations for director

    when show opens (coordinate run crew and board operators, call cues, oversee entire show)
  82. teatro farnese vs teatro olimpico
    • scenery behind (permanent)
    • olimpico is the mini roman theatre with perspectives scenery
  83. black box
    large square room with black wall and flat floor
  84. moliere
    master of comedy for Tartuffe
  85. aristophanes
    • old comedy
    • lysistrata
    • father of comedy
  86. shakespeare
    • lord chamberlain's men or king's men
    • hamlet
  87. tragic character
    • high status
    • someone we can identify with (not perfect)
    • free choice to downfall
    • punishment exceeds crime
    • discovery on part of tragic character
  88. dramaturg
    professional position within a theatre or opera company that deals mainly with research and development of plays or operas.
  89. production dramaturgy and literary management
    • literary management: finding, developing, shaping scripts (reading scripts, looking at its potential, work with playwright to develop play)
    • production: working with directors on specific productions of plays (work with designers, production team, outreach audience, create program notes, help get historical context for play
  90. Kinesias and Myrrhine
    Myrrhine is the woman that kept on going to fetch things for Kinesias
  91. Mariane
    • orgon's daughter who he wants to marry her off with Tartuffe
    • but she wants to marry valiere
  92. Elmire
    • Orgon's wife, Damis is first hidden in the closet
    • orgon wants to make Tartuff his son in law