music history test 2

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  1. as italy declines in the late 17th century what cities become more prominant in music?
    Naples and Rome

    • - muisc goes to the holy roman empire
    • - venetian opera compoers exported opera to the holy roman empire
  2. how does opera change as it moves into the holy roman empire
    • aria
    • - no longer strophic
    • -begins to use da capo form ( ABA' )
    • - goes from one to five and back
    • > a section presents an emotion and b section colors the emotion
    • uses the con motto aria - repetition of the main motive

    opera moves out of the public relm and is privatized and is only shown at couts

    main place for opera is naples and rome
  3. great arcadian reform
    • first big reform of opera
    • happened in naples and rome

    based on the libretto of the write apostolo zeno

    • he created opera seria
    • - very serious opera that was all aobut dry recitatives and da capo arias
    • - all about beautiful muisc with simple but stylized muiscal language

    • dry recitative
    • - voice and basso continuo
    • - very speechlike
    • - sometimes added sustained strings ( then called accompanied)
  4. who were the two big opera compoers in the late 17th century in naples and rome
    legrenzi and scarlatti
  5. why were people attraced to opera?
    for the star singer and arias

    • - not for the drama
    • - this causes more and more arias to appear

    • ground bass aria
    • - short two part arias in ab form or three part arias in abb' aba or aba'

    arias music reflected the meaning of the text
  6. ground bass aria
    short two part arias in ab form

    or three part in abb' aba or aba'
  7. trio sonata flow chart
    • Rossi
    • - created trio texture
    • Martini
    • - created the ornamention
    • Cazzati
    • - violin teacher who popularised and unlocked new possibilities
    • Legrenzi
    • - earliest writer of sonatas
    • - had lots of fugue
    • Corelli
    • - published and made sonatas popular
  8. talk about the early sonatas
    they started out very amorphous

    • they started out as a piece with sections of contrasting tempo, meter and texture
    • they are for two to four solo instruments and basso continuo
    • by 1660 you have sonatas with separate movements
  9. talk about early vocal chamber music
    • cantata was the leading form and was very popular in rome
    • - featured short contrasting sections which switched between aria and recitatives
    • - ment for small performance venues so they tended to be witty and elegant
    • - every composer wrote tons of these
  10. what is serenata
    • semi dramatic piece for several singers and small orchestra
    • stradella was an important composer
  11. talk about church music and oratorio
    • cultivated the old contrapuntal style
    • - mixed the new styles with the old styles

    • san petronio was an important center for instrumental ensemble music
    • - cazzati published many collections of instrumental sonatas for use in church
    • - included the first sonatas to contain trumpet
    • - showed restraint and seriousness which was well suited to san petronio's acoustics
  12. talk about instrumental chamber music
    • italians were the masters
    • sonata and concerto were huge
    • - mostly for strings
    • - small sections that were each unique and contrasting ( they slowly became longer)
    • - turned into two types
    • > sonata de camera
    • = chamber sonatas with lots of dance movments, could have as many movements as they wanted
    • = trio sonata, fast-slow-fast-slow......
    • > Sonata da chiesa
    • = church sonata
    • =slow-fast-slow-fast
    • =trio sonata
  13. sonata da camera
    • chamber sonata
    • with lots of dance movements
    • can have as many movements as they wonted
    • in trio sonata
    • fast-slow-fast-slow.....
  14. sonata da chiesa
    • church sonata
    • slow-fast-slow-fast
    • trio sonata
  15. Archangelo corelli's sonatas
    crowining achievement in italian chamber music

    • first composer to have tonality at his disposal since his start
    • -he moves from 1>5 during pieces with binary form
    • - you see suspensions that resolve properly
    • - each chord has function
    • he writes amazing fugue
    • he takes small motives and turns them into long lines
    • focused on lyricism rather than virtuosity
    • constantly used walking bass
    • almost always had 4 movments
    • - slow fast slow fast
    • published five books of sonatas
    • - chamber sonatas
    • > begin with a prelue then a danse movement
    • - solo sonatas
    • > violins sometimes used double and triple stop
  16. concerto flow chart
    stradella ( contrast between loud and soft) Corelli ( contrast between soloist and the ensemble) torelli + albinoni (ritornello form) vivaldi ()
  17. concerto grosso
    • large ensemble vs a smaller group
    • - usually 2 violins
    • solo group is called the concertino and the orchestra is called the ripieno
    • all about contrast
    • - big vs little
    • -loud vs soft
    • - stradella - invented the concept of contrast between forces
    • - corelli was the first to publish the idea of contrast
    • > wrote ealy concerto grosso
    • = wrote it like a trio sonata but reinforced it with orchestra
    • = tutti would reinforce cadences
    • = large and small groups share material
    • = no assigned role
    • = most are binary form
  18. Torelli
    • composer
    • created the idea that all concerto were in the fast slow fast order
    • invented ritornello form
    • - virtuosic form wher the solo instrument plays virtuosic and idiomatic material
    • - orchestra and soloist ( or solo group) had different material
    • > albonini had the ritornello present material that the soloist would develop ( similar material)
    • > torelli had the solist play something compleatly different ( different material)
    • -music was all about moving from the tonic to dominant key and back
    • > the orchestra open and closes with similar material and also plays it during the dominant section but the solist causes the modulation
    • = ritornello (1) solo (modulation) ritornello (5) solo (modulation) ritornello (1)
  19. ritornello form
    • - virtuosic form wher the solo instrument plays virtuosic and idiomatic material
    • - orchestra and soloist ( or solo group) had different material
    • > albonini had the ritornello present material that the soloist would develop ( similar material)
    • > torelli had the solist play something compleatly different ( different material)
    • -music was all about moving from the tonic to dominant key and back
    • > the orchestra open and closes with similar material and also plays it during the dominant section but the solist causes the modulation
    • = ritornello (1) solo (modulation) ritornello (5) solo (modulation) ritornello (1)
  20. who was the big german/austrian song and cantata composer
  21. in germany and austria did they welcome italian music (and opera)

    they tried to appeal to the middle class
  22. lutheran vocal music was mostly based on what?
  23. luteran organ music
    • lots of types of organ
    • lots of counterpoint (like fugue)
  24. how did italy and france change in the early 18th century
    • lots of political change becasue of revolution
    • lots of population growth
    • roads were improved and travel was easier so ideas spread faster
    • nature was idealized
    • more and more schools opened and more people became literate
  25. during the early 18th century in italy what was the most prestigious type of music
    opera but the concerto was gaining ground
  26. music in naples during the early 18th century
    • had four conservatories
    • - homes for poor orphaned boys that specialize in teaching music
    • - these students made great careers for themselves
    • >many were castrati and helped to popularize opera further
  27. music in rome during the early 18th century
    • opera was less centered here becasue of surpport for other generas
    • patrons would sponsor competitions and academies
    • - this made rome the center for instrumentalists
  28. music in venice during the early 18th century
    • was declining in political power but was still a cultural center
    • lots of music expecially opera
    • - at least 6 opera companies at all times
  29. antonio vivaldi
    • huge composer, teacher, and virtuoso violinist
    • - spent most of his life in venice
    • > his main position was as a teacher, composer, conductor at a poor children's school
    • = he had to maintain instruments, teach, and compose music for his students to play
    • = was known for his opera and concertos

    • concertos
    • - he wrote tons of them
    • -they are very popular to play
    • - he helped to establish standard practices and form
    • - he extermented alot
    • > new instrumentaion and combinations of instruments
    • >followed the three movement form set out by albonini
    • > he established ritornello form
    • = allowed him to write longer pieces more easily

    • - lestro armonico
    • > collection of concerto that made him internationally famout
    • > took what albonini did with the opening ritornello and ran with it
    • = his ritornello became a mosaic of different thems to be developed by the soloist
  30. why does music change in france during the early 18th century
    • king louis dies
    • and his grandson takes over
  31. what was the cultural center in france during the early 18th century?
  32. what was the goal of french music during the early 18th century
    incorperate italian style into french muisc
  33. francois couperi
    • wanted to blend the french and italian styles
    • he was an organist for the king and a harpsichord teacher
    • - wrote 4 big books of harpsichord music
    • > lart de toucher la clavecin or the art of playing harpsichord

    • he wrote tons of music
    • - ordies
    • > suites with lots of movements added in usually with fanciful titles

    first and most important french composer of trio sonatas

    • created stil galant
    • - more regular and periodic phrases
    • -graceful and ornamented
    • - more homphony, and clear movment between keys
  34. jean phillpe rameau
    his writinghs founded the theory behind tonal music

    • organist, muisc theorist, and composer
    • - worked for la poupliniere
    • - he was accused of overthrowing lully
    • > he kept the french core but expanded on lully
    • = recitative oblige - orchestra conversed with singer
    • < orchestra and singer go back and forth
    • = large independant orchestra
    • = very harmonically active that was tonal
    • = thought that every non tonic chord should carry dissonance
    • =melodies outline chords

    • traite de l'ttarmonie - theory of harmony
    • - he approached music as something to be explained by rational principal
    • - said each chord has a fundamental tone ( root) and a series of fundamental tones
    • - he coined the terms tonic, dominant, and subdominant
    • - first to bring all these elements together to create a working system

    • -wrote many operas but not until late in his life
    • - his opera was either loved or hated but it recieved alot of publicity
    • - uses the tonal system with a rich pallet of chords
    • -smoothly moved between aria and recitative
  35. what was the musical making in the countryside during the 18th century
    • hanburg
    • first german public opera house here in 1678
  36. lutheran organ music during the 18th century
    • filled the dead air and helped the congragation sing
    • all was influenced by frescibaldi
    • north germany favored fugal writing
    • - elaborate fugue was often linked to toccata
  37. dietrich buxtehude
    • german composer known for his chorale tune writing
    • lots of toccata and fugue
    • influenced bach

    • ninteen organ preludes - sectional compositions that alternate between free improvisation and strict counterpoint
    • - strict diatonic harmony with secondary dominants
  38. what is the foundation of the lutheran musical tradition
    • chorale music
    • - hymn tune that is strophic and monophonic from germany
    • - early baroque saw lots of texts and hymns
    • > composers reharmonized many old and new tunes
    • > lots of block chords with the choral melody in the top voice

    • types
    • - chorale variations
    • - chorale fantasisa
    • -chorale fugue
    • -chorale prelude
    • >most common
    • > brief polyphonic setting of a chorale tune played once all the way
  39. samuel scheidt
    famous for gorlitze tabulatur buch

    • 100 organ chorales with 4 part harmonization
    • influenced bach

    represents the flowering of the new north german style (happened becasue of the protestant reformation)

    • his chorale preludes used a patterned variation technique
    • - each phrase uses a different rhythmic motive and becsomes more and more elaborate
  40. johann sebastian bach
    • devout and prolific composer
    • 22 kids with two women
    • composed music as a career so his music was directly related to the office he held
    • > wrote the music he bneeded at the time
    • - organist at arnstad and muhlerhaused and wrimar
    • > wrote lots of organ and keyboard music
    • > was also a choir director at weimar for the church so he wrote many cantatas
    • - director of music for prince leopold at cothen
    • > wrote mostly chamber and orchestral music while there
    • >secular job
    • >this is where the brandenburgh concertos were written

    • > director of music for the city of leipzig and conator at st thomas
    • = wrote a new cantata for every sunday
    • = often incorperated a chorale tune
    • = wrote often with erdmann neumeister
    • < lutheran pastor who invented the cantata idea

    • keyboard music
    • - lots of prelude and fugue
    • >very rhapsodic
    • >fugue sections were interspersed in prelude
    • > you sometimes have elements of the prelude in the fugue

    • chorale preludes
    • - creative with lots of elaboration

    • it is believed that much of his music died with him
    • - disappeared after his death and wasnt really discovered again until liszt
    • - he didnt break any new ground he just did everything better
  41. ernmann neumeister
    lutheran pastor who invented the cantata idea
  42. cantata
    poetic form that compliments the readings for the day in church

    • breaks down in aria recitative and chorus
    • - usually ( opening - recitative- aria or duet - chorale setting for choir - recitative - aria - chorale for congregation ( in 4 parts)

    they could have many different structures

    bachs arias were usually da capo arias

    they often incorperate a chorale tune
  43. what is stil galant
    • 0- regular and periodic phrases
    • graceful and ornamented
    • more homophony with clear movmeent between keys
  44. what was lestro armonico
    collection of concerto taht made vivaldi internationally famous
  45. chorale preludes
    • most common chorale tune
    • brief polyphonic setting of a chorale tune played once all the way through
    • tune was put over fugal or free figures
  46. clori vezzosa e bella

    cantata - 2 or 3 arias with small recitative that is held together by a small plot

    • text is a love poem
    • - love is pain but i keep coming back
    • - about a shepards love for a nymph
    • lots of modulation

    da capo aria
  47. la griselda
    • scarlatti
    • opera

    • libretto was adapted from one by zeno
    • da capo aria
    • fast and short
  48. trio sonata op 3 no 2
    • corelli
    • Trio Sonata

    • lots of non chord tones that are properly resolved
    • majestic and solujm

    • second movement is a fugue
    • second fast movements feel like opera arias
    • last movement is a gigue
    • - with fugue, pedal point, stretto, imitation
    • - in biniary form
  49. concerto grosso in a minor mp 3 no 6
    • vivaldi
    • Violin Concerto

    • fast movements are in ritornello form
    • third movement is more playful
  50. vingt - cinquieme orde
    • la visionaire
    • - a take on a french overture
    • -with lots of dotted rhythems

    • la muse victorieuse
    • - in a highly developed bianary form that foreshadowed sonata form
    • - you have the return of the first theme area

    • couperin
    • keyboard suite - is an orde
  51. hippolyte et aricie
    • rameau
    • opera - tragedie lyrique

    • libretto by pellegrini
    • divertissement
    • - tsunami, monsters, wind machine
    • - lady dies and chorus laments
    • >lots of drooping arpeggios
    • >lots of dissonance
    • - dude comes in ( he caused the mess)
    • > sings a lament in dry recitative with heavy orchestral involvement

    rameau's first opera
  52. praeludium et fuga in a minor
    • bach
    • organ prelude and fugue

    • begins like a violin concerto
    • closes with flourishes like frescabaldi

    • fugue seems to be modeled on a concerto
    • -subject is violinistic with lots of sequences
    • - rapid leapes and solo episodes modulate
    • - alternates fugue and free episodes
  53. organ chorale durch adams fall
    • bach
    • chorale prelude
    • from orgelbuchlein

    in bar form aab and is strophic

    • word painting everyhwere
    • soprano heard through without gaps
  54. nun komm der heiden heiland
    • bach cantata
    • cantata for the first sunday in advent
    • hybrid of many different forms
    • large orchestration and very polyphonic
    • - uses fore imitation: imitating something before you hear it
  55. giulio cesare
    v'adoro pupille

    • handel
    • opera

    • lots of da capo arias
    • lots of counterpoint
    • Lots of dry recitative

    inturruption that furthers the plot
  56. saul act 2 scene 10
    • handel
    • oratorio

    about saul being jelous of david ( from david and goliath)
  57. orgelbuchlein
    • series of single statement melodies for students to harmonize
    • intended to bring out the affections
    • by bach as a teaching tool
  58. preludium in e major
    • organ prelude
    • buxtehude

    • exemplified the toccata style
    • It's a toccata
    • sectional and virtuosic and improvisatory
    • Lots of fugal sections opening free sections long while the others are very sorry and act as transitions
    • Sections are reinforced with tempo our meter changes
  59. george frideric handel
    • moved through many differerent countries
    • won international fame during his lifetime
    • -known as an opera composer and impressario

    • born near leipsig and studied in italy with scarlatti
    • -eventually settled in london after working all over germany and europe

    • had many patrons who helped him throught his career
    • - first worked in hamburg
    • > hired as court music director ( kappellmeister)
    • =handel took time off to go to london and write
    • =never went back
    • > his boss became king
    • = handel writes water music to avoid pissing off now king George about leaving for so long

    • operas
    • - wrote great opera and lots of it and combined many countries styles
    • - finaldo was the first italian opera composed for london and this was a huge success that cemented handels fame
    • - when the royal academy of music was formed handel composed for it and made tons of money
    • > eventually has some issues gbecause of a competing company that is more like musical theater

    • - he used solo da capo aria which allowed charactors to respond lyrically to their situations
    • >arias would be extreamly different in style

    • oritorio
    • - handel invented
    • - essentially a sacred opera that was presented in concert
    • -usually old testiment stories
    • -no constumes and not staged

    • - used a huge powerful chorus
    • >simple chorus but very dramatic
    • -not church music but was sacred
  60. oratorio
    • handel devised a new genre
    • essentially a sacred opera that was presented in concert
    • mostly old testiment stories
    • no costumes and not staged so they were cheaper

    • used a huge powerful chorus
    • - simple chorus that was not polyphonic
    • - very dramatic
    • -varied fugue and homophony

    • close to music theater perofmrnaces
  61. talk about the history of opera
    • came from greek drama
    • - girolamo mei of the florinetine camerata discovered some greek music on parchment
    • - vicenzo galilei then wrote a treatice that transcribed the hymns that mei discovered while he also slammed renaissance conventions and claimed you have to use simple music to express the affections
    • >they then tried to recreate greek drama in modern language by using just enough instrumental accompaniment to keep the singer in tune ( spare homophony)

    • ideas spread through the members of the florintine camerate
    • - style rappresentativo was invented ( heightened speach and highly declamatory singing) and so was the first "aria" ( any setting of strophic poetry)
    • - peri attempts to recreate it using dafne ( first ever opera which is now lost) and then L'Eurdice (first surving opera) in which he created the recitative style by trying to imitate speech
    • - monteverdi then arrives on the opera scene and using operas such as Poppea popularises it (he uses diverse pallets of monody and many types of monody)

    • opera spread slowly due to the cost
    • - however once it hit rome opera polarized into aria and recitative
    • - once it hit venive it exploded and the first public opera house was opened in 1637
    • -more and more operas were performed and singeres enjoyed large salories and celebrity status
    • -Touring companies which spread from venice helped opera to grow and spread faster than ever

    • opera becomes corrupt
    • -comedy scenes>to sell tickets but caused bad wiring and plot interruptions
    • - special effects> smoke and mirrors burned many opera houses
    • - too much aira> singers began to run the show and demanded more and more aria and would even take one aria from an opera they already knew and substitute it into a compleatly new place in a new opera (pisticcio
    • >whis was not helped by cavalli ( who had tons of aria) and casti ( who had tons of short arias or arioso)

    • opera in france
    • - king louis xiv controls everyhing and uses opera as a way to control people and nobles
    • - there is a free flow between recitative and aria 
    • - lots of spectacle ( ballet and chorus) 
    • - lots of emotion and drama
    • - lully and quinault with the support of the king created a new form of french opera which praised the king and was in line with his ideals
    • > it was broken up into operture and acts with musical divertissements between and inside each act 

    • opera eventually moves into the holy roman empire
    • - many opera houses in italy close and rome and naples become more important
    • - opera chages (aria is no longer strophic) and opera moves out of the public relm and becomes almost entirely private
    • - great arcadian reform creates very serious operabased on the wirtings of apostolo zeno which is all about beautiful music with simple and only slightly stylized musical language
    • - in italy during this time people still drawn to opera by star singers and arias
    • >even more arias appear and aria music began to reflect the meaning of the text

    • during the early 18th century 
    • -opera is still prised in italy
    • >naples conservatories created amazing singers
    • >rome supported other gneeras but turned out fantastic instrumentalists
    • - venice retains lots of opera ( six companies at a time)
    • - rameau finally updates french opera
    • >large independant orchestra that was very harmonically active and uses recitative obligie which creates a dialogue between the orchestra and the singer

    opera goes from very smple to very ornamentaed and complex
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music history test 2
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