Anthro 103 C.10 (text terms)

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Anthro 103 C.10 (text terms)
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2014-10-18 02:57:32
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  1. Define: Bioarchaeology
    The study of the human biological component evident in the archaeological record
  2. Osteology
    The study of bone
  3. Burial Population
    A set of human burials that come from a limited region and a limited time period.  The more limited the region and the time period, the more accurate will be inferences drawn from analysis of the burials.
  4. Charnel House
    A structure used by eastern North American to lay out the dead where the body would decompose.  The bones would later be gathered and buried or cremated.
  5. Bundle burial
    Burial of a person's bones, bundled together, after the flesh has been removed or allowed to decay off the bones.
  6. Sciatic notch
    The angled edge of both halves of the posterior (rear) side of the pelvis; measurement of this angle is used to determine sex in human skeletons. 

    Although its width varies among populations, narrow notches indicate a male and wider notches indicate a female.
  7. Epiphyses
    The ends of bones that fuse to the main shaft or portion of bone at various ages; most bones are fused by age 25

    This fact can be used to age skeletons of younger individuals. (Relative age)
  8. Public symphysis
    Where the two halves of the pelvis meet in the groin area; the appearance of its articulating surface can be used to age skeletons.
  9. Paleopathology
    The study of ancient patterns of disease disorders, and trauma
  10. Porotic Hyperostosis
    A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance
  11. Cribra Orbitalia
    A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance
  12. Harris Line
    Horizontal lines near the ends of long bones indicating episodes of physiological stress
  13. enamel hypoplasias
    Horizontal linear defects in tooth enamel indicating episodes of physiological stress
  14. Osteoarthritis
    A disorder in which the cartilage between joints wears away, often because of overuse of the joint, resulting in osteophytes and eburnation
  15. Osteophyte
    A sign of osteoarthritis in which bones develop a distinct "lipping" of bone at the point of articulation
  16. Eburnation
    A sign of osteoarthritis in which the epiphyses of long bones are worn smooth, causing them to take on a varnish-like apperance
  17. Long bone cross sections
    Cross sections of the body's long bones (arms and legs) used to analyze bone shape and reconstruct the mechanical stresses placed on that bone-and hence activity patterns
  18. The study of ancient demographic patterns and trends
    Plaeodemography
  19. mortality profiles
    Charts that depict the various ages at death of a burial population
  20. Caries
    Cavities
  21. Bone collagen
    The organic component of bone
  22. The use of genetic information in ancient human remains to reconstruct the past
    Molecular Archaeology
  23. This material is primarily responsible for an individual's inherited traits
    • nuclear DNA;
    • Defined as the genetic material found in a cell's nucleus
  24. Gene
    A unit of the chromosomes that control inheritance of particular traits
  25. It is inherited only from the mother and appears to mutate at a rate of 2-4 percent per 1 million years
    mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)


    Defined as genetic material found in the mitochondria of cells
  26. molecular clock
    Calculations of the time since divergence of two related populations using the presumed rate of mutation in mtDNA and the genetic differences between two populations
  27. haplogroup
    Genetic lineages defined by similar genes at a locus on a chromosome

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