The study of the human biological component evident in the archaeological record
The study of bone
A set of human burials that come from a limited region and a limited time period. The more limited the region and the time period, the more accurate will be inferences drawn from analysis of the burials.
A structure used by eastern North American to lay out the dead where the body would decompose. The bones would later be gathered and buried or cremated.
Burial of a person's bones, bundled together, after the flesh has been removed or allowed to decay off the bones.
The angled edge of both halves of the posterior (rear) side of the pelvis; measurement of this angle is used to determine sex in human skeletons.
Although its width varies among populations, narrow notches indicate a male and wider notches indicate a female.
The ends of bones that fuse to the main shaft or portion of bone at various ages; most bones are fused by age 25.
This fact can be used to age skeletons of younger individuals. (Relative age)
Where the two halves of the pelvis meet in the groin area; the appearance of its articulating surface can be used to age skeletons.
The study of ancient patterns of disease disorders, and trauma
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the skull takes on a porous appearance
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance
Horizontal lines near the ends of long bones indicating episodes of physiological stress
Horizontal linear defects in tooth enamel indicating episodes of physiological stress
A disorder in which the cartilage between joints wears away, often because of overuse of the joint, resulting in osteophytes and eburnation
A sign of osteoarthritis in which bones develop a distinct "lipping" of bone at the point of articulation
A sign of osteoarthritis in which the epiphyses of long bones are worn smooth, causing them to take on a varnish-like apperance
Long bone cross sections
Cross sections of the body's long bones (arms and legs) used to analyze bone shape and reconstruct the mechanical stresses placed on that bone-and hence activity patterns
The study of ancient demographic patterns and trends
Charts that depict the various ages at death of a burial population
The organic component of bone
The use of genetic information in ancient human remains to reconstruct the past
This material is primarily responsible for an individual's inherited traits
Defined as the genetic material found in a cell's nucleus
A unit of the chromosomes that control inheritance of particular traits
It is inherited only from the mother and appears to mutate at a rate of 2-4 percent per 1 million years
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Defined as genetic material found in the mitochondria of cells
Calculations of the time since divergence of two related populations using the presumed rate of mutation in mtDNA and the genetic differences between two populations
Genetic lineages defined by similar genes at a locus on a chromosome