- rome went into conflict with karthage a naval power
- romans were terrible at sea, so they lost
- rome realized needed to invest in naval warfare, but were better on land
- rome stumbled onto a karthaginian shipwreck
- rome used shipwreck as bases for plotting attack and therefore made bridges to connect to ships and fight on solid grounding like land.
- rome defeated karthage
2nd punic war - hannibalic war, scipio africanus defeated hannibal, making rome victor
3rd war - rome started, tore everything down. after defeating karthage - rome stood as strongest empire in mediterranian. conquered all of alex the greats kingdoms except parthia