The study of the microscopic structure and function of cells and associated tissue.
Another term for histology is?
smallest living unit of organization. each cell is capable of performing any necessary functions without the aid of other cells.
Each cell has...
Cells with similar characteristics of form and function are grouped together for form a _____.
Various tissue types are then bonded together to form an ____.
Organs can function together as a
Cells in a tissue undergo cell division (or mitosis) to reproduce and replace the dead tissue cells. As a result of the division process, four daughter cells that are identical to each other and to the original parent cell are formed.
First statement is true, second statement is false.
Mitosis = Two daughter cells
Cells can preform exocytosis which is?
An active transport of material from a vesicle within the cell out into the extracellular environment.
the uptake of materials form the extracellular environment into the cell.
the engulfing and then digesting of solid waste and foreign material by the cell through enzymatic breakdown of the material.
surrounds the cell
Cell membrane consists of...
Is an intricate bilayer
predominantly made of phospholipids and proteins
The phospholipids serve largely as a ______?
the proteins of the cell membrane serve as ...
structural reinforcements, as well as receptors for specific hormones, neurotransmitters, and immunoglobulins (antibodies).
the semifluid part contained within the cell membrane boundary, as well as the skeletal system of support or cytoskeleton.
The cytoplasm contains not only a member of structures but also spaces or cavities called ____.
metabolically active specialized structures within the cell.
Major organelles of the cell include...
Is the largest, densest, and most conspicuous organelle in the cell when it is viewed microscopically.
Most cells have a single nucleus,however some cells are multinucleated, such as osteroclasts or skeletal muscles.
both statements are true
Smallest living unit of organization: epithelial cell, neuron, myofiber, chondrocyte, osteocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, macrophage, sperm
Independent body part formed from tissue: skin, brain, heart, liver
Organs functioning together: central nervous system, respiratory system, immune system, cardiovascular system
the chief nucleic acid in the nucleoplasm is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in the form of what?
- looks like diffuse stippling when the cell is viewed microscopically.
In an actively dividing cell, the chromatin condenses into microscopically visible, discrete, rodlike _____.
Each chromosome has a _____, a clear, constricted area near the middle.
Chromosomes become two filamentous, or threadlike, ____ (daughter chromosomes) joined by a centromere during cell division.
Functions of the nucleus
stores the genetic code
give directions for everthing the cell is and will become
control all functions the cell preforms
controls the other organelles in the cell
switches genes on or off
The chemical messages that result in genes switching on or off in the nucleus come form the cytoplasm, where, in turn, they are generated as a result of interaction between the surface membrane and the environment.
In the nucleus three very important types of RNA are produces:
mRNA, messenger RNA
tRNA, transfer RNA
rRNA, ribosome RNA
complementary copies of distinct segments of DNA
molecules capable of specifically binding to the transporting amino acid units for protein synthesis.
The fluid part within the nucleus is the ____, which contains important molecules used in the construction of ribosomes, nucleic acids, and other nuclear materials.
The nucleus is surrounded by by the _____, a membrane that is similar to the cell membrane except that it is double layered.
The nuclear membrane may be pierced by _____, which act as avenues of communication between the inner nucleoplasm and the outer cytoplasm.
Contained in the nucleus is the ____, a prominent, rounded nuclear organelle that is centrally placed in the nucleoplasm when the cell is viewed microscopically.
The nucleolus mainly produced ____ and the nucleotides of the two other types of RNA.
With nucleolus acts as a ____.
A. city hall
B. power plant
C. sewer system
The ____ are the most numerous organelles in the cell. They are associated with energy conversion, and thus are the _____ for the cell.
Mitochondria, power plants
Mitochondria are a major source of ___ and therefore are the site of many metabolic reactions.
ATP - adenosine triphosphate
The ___ is noted with cellular changes to encounter with periodontal disease.
Mitochondria cell energy is produced by two of the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration.
krebs cycle - multienzyme system
hydrogen pathway - uses electron transport chain of enzymes
besides supplying energy mitochondria help balance the concentration of... 3 right
D. other ions
The _____ are the tiny sphere-shaped organelles int eh cell.
Ribosomes function as roving ____ for the cell; their location changes based on the type of protein being made for the cell.
A. protein factories
B. power plants
C. packaging plant
The ___ consists of parallel membrane-bound channels.
ER (highway system)
The ER is either classified as either ___ or ____ which is determined by the absence or presence of ribosomes.
The ER's primary function are...
transport of protein
Golgi complex function are...
transport of protein compounds
the ___ is the second largest organelle and is composed of stacks of three to twenty flattened, smooth-membrane vesicular sacs arranged parallel to one another.
After the modification and packageing the golgi complex wraps up large numbers of these molecules into a single membranous vesicle and then sends it on its way to the cells surface to be released by the process of ____. - salivary glands
the golgi not only prepares proteins for export by exocytosis but also produced a separate organelle, _____.
The ___ function in both intracellular and extracellular digestion by the cell.
lysosomes ability to lyse or digest various waste and foreign materials in or around the cell, which occurs during ____.
The ____ is a dense, somewhat oval-shaped organelle that contains a pair cylindrial structures, the centrioles.
- always located near the nucleus
The ____ helps form the mitotic spindle apparatus during cell division or mitosis.
There are ___ centrioles within the centrosome, and each is composed of triplets of microtubules arranged in a cartwheel pattern.
The three-dimensional system of support, the ____.
the components of the cytokeleton include...
____ are delicate, threadlike microscopic structures.
___ are slender hollow tubular microscopic structures that may appear individually, doubly, or as triplets.
If the projections on the cell are shorter and more numerous they are considered ___; it the projections are fewer and longer, they are considered ___.
the ___ are of various types of thicker, thread like microscopic structures within the cell.
one type of intermediate filament, a ___ has a major role in intercellular junctions.
another type of intermediate filament is one that forms ___, many of which are located inthe oral cavity such as on the surface of the tongue.
the cell also contains ___, which are metabolically inert substances that are also transient over time in the cell.
Melanin is stored as inclusions in certain cell of the skin and oral mucosa and is responsible for the ____ of these tissue types.
___ functions during tissue growth or replacement, and its activity is dependent on the length of the cells life span.
the DNA is replicated during __ as part of the cell cycle.
interphase has three phases
chromatin condenses into chromosomes in cell
replicated centrioles migrate to opposite poles
nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate
chromosomes move so that their centromeres are aligned in the equatorial plane
Mitotic spindle forms
centromeres split, and each chromosome separates into two chromatids
chromatids migrate to opposite poles by the mitotic spindle.
division into two daughter cells occurs
nuclear membrane reappears
the cell division that takes place during mitosis consists of 4 phases.
____ provides a medium for dissolving, mixing, and transporting substances and for carrying out chemical reactions.
tissue fluid then drains back into the blood and ___ through osmosis, via the lymphatics.
___ is shapeless, colorless, and transparent. It fills the spaces between the cells in a tissue.
intercellular fluid serve as..
exchange of gas
the surrounding cells produce the intercellular substances, and one of its most common ingredients is ____.
some cells in certain tissue are joined by the mechanism of ____.
the cell membranes come close together but do not completely attach.
the attachment device includes and attachment plaque that is located within the cell as well as adjacent ____.
and intercellular junction between cells is formed by a ____.
___ tend to cause the regularly plunp cells to appear pricked or star shaped as they still maintain their junctional stronghold between the shrinking cells.
another type of intercellular junction is formed by a ___ which involves and attachment of a cell to an adjacent noncellular surface.
the attachment device of a ____ looks like half of a desmosome, because it involves a smaller attachment plaque and tonofilaments form only the cellular side.