DH - Embryology and Histology Ch. 7

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Bgerth
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286173
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DH - Embryology and Histology Ch. 7
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2014-10-19 16:24:03
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DH Embryology Histology
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DH-Embryology and Histology
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Ch. 7 Overview of the Cell Self-quiz
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  1. Histology
    The study of the microscopic structure and function of cells and associated tissue.
  2. Another term for histology is?
    Microanatomy
  3. cell
    smallest living unit of organization. each cell is capable of performing any necessary functions without the aid of other cells.
  4. Each cell has...
    • cell membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • organelles
    • inclusions
  5. Cells with similar characteristics of form and function are grouped together for form a _____.
    Tissue
  6. Various tissue types are then bonded together to form an ____.
    Organ
  7. Organs can function together as a
    ____.
    System
  8. Cells in a tissue undergo cell division (or mitosis)  to reproduce and replace the dead tissue cells. As a result of the division process, four daughter cells that are identical to each other and to the original parent cell are formed.
    • First statement is true, second statement is false. 
    • Mitosis = Two daughter cells
  9. Cells can preform exocytosis which is?
    An active transport of material from a vesicle within the cell out into the extracellular environment.
  10. Endocytosis
    the uptake of materials form the extracellular environment into the cell.
  11. Phagocytosis
    the engulfing and then digesting of solid waste and foreign material by the cell through enzymatic breakdown of the material.
  12. cell membrane
    surrounds the cell
  13. Cell membrane consists of...
    • Is an intricate bilayer
    • predominantly made of phospholipids and proteins
  14. The phospholipids serve largely as a ______?
    diffusion regulator
  15. the proteins of the cell membrane serve as ...
    structural reinforcements, as well as receptors for specific hormones, neurotransmitters, and immunoglobulins (antibodies).
  16. Cytoplasm
    the semifluid part contained within the cell membrane boundary, as well as the skeletal system of support or cytoskeleton.
  17. The cytoplasm contains not only a member of structures but also spaces or cavities called ____.
    vacuoles
  18. organelles
    metabolically active specialized structures within the cell.
  19. Major organelles of the cell include...
    • nucleus
    • mitochondria 
    • ribosomes
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • golgi complex
    • lysosomes
    • cytoskeleton
  20. Nucleus
    Is the largest, densest, and most conspicuous organelle in the cell when it is viewed microscopically.
  21. Most cells have a single nucleus,however some cells are multinucleated, such as osteroclasts or skeletal muscles.
    both statements are true
  22. Cell
    Smallest living unit of organization: epithelial cell, neuron, myofiber, chondrocyte, osteocyte, fibroblast, erythrocyte, macrophage, sperm
  23. Tissue
    Collection of similarly specialized cells: epithelium, nervous tissue, muscle, cartilage, bone, connective tissue, blood
  24. Organ
    Independent body part formed from tissue: skin, brain, heart, liver
  25. System
    Organs functioning together: central nervous system, respiratory system, immune system, cardiovascular system
  26. the chief nucleic acid in the nucleoplasm is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in the form of what?
    • Chromatin
    • - looks like diffuse stippling when the cell is viewed microscopically.
  27. In an actively dividing cell, the chromatin condenses into microscopically visible, discrete, rodlike _____.
    Chromosomes
  28. Each chromosome has a _____, a clear, constricted area near the middle.
    centromere
  29. Chromosomes become two filamentous, or threadlike, ____ (daughter chromosomes) joined by a centromere during cell division.
    chromatids
  30. Functions of the nucleus
    • stores the genetic code
    • give directions for everthing the cell is and will become
    • control all functions the cell preforms
    • controls the other organelles in the cell
    • switches genes on or off
  31. The chemical messages that result in genes switching on or off in the nucleus come form the cytoplasm, where, in turn, they are generated as a result of interaction between the surface membrane and the environment.
    true
  32. In the nucleus three very important types of RNA are produces:
    • mRNA, messenger RNA
    • tRNA, transfer RNA
    • rRNA, ribosome RNA
  33. mRNA
    complementary copies of distinct segments of DNA
  34. tRNA
    molecules capable of specifically binding to the transporting amino acid units for protein synthesis.
  35. The fluid part within the nucleus is the ____, which contains important molecules used in the construction of ribosomes, nucleic acids, and other nuclear materials.
    nucleoplasm
  36. The nucleus is surrounded by by the _____, a membrane that is similar to the cell membrane except that it is double layered.
    nuclear membrane
  37. The nuclear membrane may be pierced by _____, which act as avenues of communication between the inner nucleoplasm and the outer cytoplasm.
    nuclear pores
  38. Contained in the nucleus is the ____, a prominent, rounded nuclear organelle that is centrally placed in the nucleoplasm when the cell is viewed microscopically.
    nucleolus
  39. The nucleolus mainly produced ____ and the nucleotides of the two other types of RNA.
    rRNA
  40. With nucleolus acts as a ____. 

    A. city hall
    B. power plant
    C. sewer system
    D. freeways
    A
  41. The ____ are the most numerous organelles in the cell. They are associated with energy conversion, and thus are the _____ for the cell.
    Mitochondria, power plants
  42. Mitochondria are a major source of ___ and therefore are the site of many metabolic reactions.
    ATP - adenosine triphosphate
  43. The ___ is noted with cellular changes to encounter with periodontal disease.
    mitochodria
  44. Mitochondria cell energy is produced by two of the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration.
    • krebs cycle - multienzyme system
    • hydrogen pathway - uses electron transport chain of enzymes
  45. besides supplying energy mitochondria help balance the concentration of... 3 right

    A. water
    B. calcium
    C. hormones
    D. other ions
    • A
    • B
    • D
  46. The _____ are the tiny sphere-shaped organelles int eh cell.
    ribosomes
  47. Ribosomes function as roving ____ for the cell; their location changes based on the type of protein being made for the cell. 
    A. protein factories
    B. power plants
    C. packaging plant
    D. freeways
    A
  48. The ___ consists of parallel membrane-bound channels.
    ER (highway system)
  49. The ER is either classified as either ___ or ____ which is determined by the absence or presence of ribosomes.
    rough, smooth
  50. The ER's primary function are...
    • modification
    • storage
    • segregation
    • transport of protein
  51. Golgi complex function are...
    • segregation
    • packaging
    • transport of protein compounds
    • "packaging plant"
  52. the ___ is the second largest organelle and is composed of stacks of three to twenty flattened, smooth-membrane vesicular sacs arranged parallel to one another.
    golgi complex
  53. After the modification and packageing the golgi complex wraps up large numbers of these molecules into a single membranous vesicle and then sends it on its way to the cells surface to be released by the process of ____. - salivary glands
    exocytosis
  54. the golgi not only prepares proteins for export by exocytosis but also produced a separate organelle, _____.
    lysosomes
  55. The ___ function in both intracellular and extracellular digestion by the cell.
    lysosomes
  56. lysosomes ability to lyse or digest various waste and foreign materials in or around the cell, which occurs during ____.
    phagocyotosis
  57. The ____ is a dense, somewhat oval-shaped organelle that contains a pair cylindrial structures, the centrioles.
    - always located near the nucleus
    centosome
  58. The ____ helps form the mitotic spindle apparatus during cell division or mitosis.
    centrosome
  59. There are ___ centrioles within the centrosome, and each is composed of triplets of microtubules arranged in a cartwheel pattern.
    two
  60. The three-dimensional system of support, the ____.
    • cytoskeleton
    • "freeways"
  61. the components of the cytokeleton include...
    • microfiliments
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubules
  62. ____ are delicate, threadlike microscopic structures.
    microfilaments
  63. ___ are slender hollow tubular microscopic structures that may appear individually, doubly, or as triplets.
    microtubules
  64. If the projections on the cell are shorter and more numerous they are considered ___; it the projections are fewer and longer, they are considered ___.
    cilia, flagella
  65. the ___ are of various types of thicker, thread like microscopic structures within the cell.
    intermediate filaments
  66. one type of intermediate filament, a ___ has a major role in intercellular junctions.
    tonofilament
  67. another type of intermediate filament is one that forms ___, many of which are located inthe oral cavity such as on the surface of the tongue.
    keratin
  68. the cell also contains ___, which are metabolically inert substances that are also transient over time in the cell.
    inclusions
  69. Melanin is stored as inclusions in certain cell of the skin and oral mucosa and is responsible for the ____ of these tissue types.
    pigmentation
  70. ___ functions during tissue growth or replacement, and its activity is dependent on the length of the cells life span.
    mitosis
  71. the DNA is replicated during __ as part of the cell cycle.
    interphase
  72. interphase has three phases
    • Gap 1
    • Gap 2
    • S synthesis
  73. Prophase
    • chromatin condenses into chromosomes in cell
    • replicated centrioles migrate to opposite poles
    • nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate
  74. metaphase
    • chromosomes move so that their centromeres are aligned in the equatorial plane
    • Mitotic spindle forms
  75. anaphase
    • centromeres split, and each chromosome separates into two chromatids
    • chromatids migrate to opposite poles by the mitotic spindle.
  76. telophase
    • division into two daughter cells occurs
    • nuclear membrane reappears
  77. the cell division that takes place during mitosis consists of 4 phases.
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  78. ____ provides a medium for dissolving, mixing, and transporting substances and for carrying out chemical reactions.
    tissue fluid
  79. tissue fluid then drains back into the blood and ___ through osmosis, via the lymphatics.
    lymph
  80. ___ is shapeless, colorless, and transparent. It fills the spaces between the cells in a tissue.
    intercellular substance
  81. intercellular fluid serve as..
    • barrier
    • exchange of gas
  82. the surrounding cells produce the intercellular substances, and one of its most common ingredients is ____.
    hyaluronic acid
  83. some cells in certain tissue are joined by the mechanism of ____.
    the cell membranes come close together but do not completely attach.
    intercellular junctions
  84. the attachment device includes and attachment plaque that is located within the cell as well as adjacent ____.
    tonofilaments
  85. and intercellular junction between cells is formed by a ____.
    desmosome
  86. ___ tend to cause the regularly plunp cells to appear pricked or star shaped as they still maintain their junctional stronghold between the shrinking cells.
    desmosomes
  87. another type of intercellular junction is formed by a ___ which involves and attachment of a cell to an adjacent noncellular surface.
    hemidesmosome
  88. the attachment device of a ____ looks like half of a desmosome, because it involves a smaller attachment plaque and tonofilaments form only the cellular side.
    hemidesmosome

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