Musculoskeletal Anatomy

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Bykan
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286178
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Musculoskeletal Anatomy
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2014-10-21 19:22:33
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Musculoskeletal Anatomy
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Anatomy
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Bones, muscle, tendons and ligaments.
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  1. What are the 8 bones forming the neurocranium?
    Frontal bone (1), parietal bones (2), temporal bones (2), occipital bone (1), sphenoid bone (1), ethmoid bone (1)
  2. What are the two parts of the skull?
    Neurocranium and facial skeleton
  3. Name the 14 irregular bones forming the facial skeleton
    Lacrimal bone (2), Nasal bones (2), Maxillae (2), Zygomatic bones (2), Palatine Bones (2), inferior nasal conchae (2), mandible (2), vomer (1)
  4. A typical vertebra consist of:
    Vertebral body, vertebral arch, 7 processes, vertebral foramen, superior and inferior vertebral notch.
  5. What is the role of the vertebral body?
    Give strength to the vertebral column and support body weight.
  6. What is the role of the vertebral arch?
    Protect the spinal cord.
  7. Name the seven processed for a typical vertebra.
    One spinous, two transverse, and four articular (two superior and two inferior).
  8. What is the purpose of the spinous process?
    muscle attachment and movement.
  9. What is the purpose of the transverse processes?
    Muscle attachment and movement.
  10. What is the purpose of the articular processes of the vertebra?
    Restriction of movement in certain direction.
  11. Abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature
    Kyphosis
  12. Anterior rotation of the pelvis and can cause low back pain
    Lordosis
  13. Abnormal lateral curvature that is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae.
    Scoliosis.
  14. Formed by the vertebral arch and the posterior surface of the vertebral body
    Vertebral foramen.
  15. Succession of vertebral foramen
    Vertebral (spinal) canal
  16. Superior and inferior notches of adjacent vertebrae contribute to the formation of ____.
    IV foramina
  17. What is the purpose of the IV foramina?
    To give a passage to the spinal nerve roots and accompanying vessels.
  18. Which type of vertebra is this? Transverse foramen for passing of blood vessels and nerves, body is small and wider, spinous process is short and sometimes bifid.
    Cervical vertebrae
  19. Which is the strongest cervical vertebra?
    C2 axis
  20. Which vertebra has no spinous process or body, it consists of anterior and posterior arches. The superior articular surfaces of C1 receive the two occipital condyles at the sides of the foramen magnum of the cranial base?
    C1 atlas
  21. Which type of vertebra is this? Costal facet for articulation with ribs, spinous processes are long and slopes posteroinferiorly, transverse processes are long, strong and extend posterolaterally, Articular processes Superior facets directed posteriorly and slightly laterally nferior facets directed anteriorly and slightly medially
    Thoracic vertebrae
  22. Usually composed of five fused sacral vertebrae in adults, forms the posterior part of the bony pelvic, articular facets for articulation with L5 and hip bone.
    Sacrum
  23. Usually formed by four rudimentaryvertebrae, but there may be one less or one more, the 1st vertebra may be separate, the last three vertebrae often fuse during middle life
    Coccyx
  24. Name the 3 types of ribs.
    True ribs (1-7), false ribs (8-10), floating ribs (11-12).
  25. Attach directly to the sternum through their own costal cartilages
    True ribs
  26. Their cartilages are joined to that of the rib immediately superior to them. Their connection to the sternum is indirect.
    False rib
  27. Type of ribs that do not connect to the sternum
    Floating ribs.
  28. Formed by the 12 pairs of ribs, sternum, costal cartilages, and 12 thoracic vertebrae.
    thoracic cage
  29. What are the roles of the thoracic cage?
    Lodges and protects the contents of the thoracic cavity, provides attachments for muscles, supports the pectoral girdle.
  30. Name the different parts of a rib
    Head, neck, tubercle and shaft.
  31. Which ribs are atypical or dissimilar?
    1, 2, 10, and 12
  32. Name the 3 parts of the sternum
    Manubrium, body and xiphoid process.
  33. At which level lies the sternum?
    At the level of the bodies of T3 to T10 vertebrae.
  34. Which structures does the sternum articulate with?
    Clavicles and pairs of costal cartilages of 1 to 7 ribs
  35. Name the palpable and important landmarks for the sternum
    Jugular notch, sternal angle, and xiphoid process.
  36. Name the 4 bones which form the pelvic skeleton
    2 hip bones, sacrum and coccyx.
  37. Which part of the ischium helps to form the acetabulum?
    The body
  38. Which part of the ischium helps form the obturator foramen?
    The ramus
  39. Which muscles attach at the ischial tuberosity?
    Semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris (long head).
  40. Which part of the pubis helps form the acetabulum?
    The superior ramus.
  41. Which part of the pubis helps form the obturator foramen?
    The inferior ramus
  42. Small passage way for the obturator nerve and vessels
    Obturator foramen
  43. What type of joint is the TMJ?
    Modified hinge type of synovial joint.
  44. Name the articular surfaces of the TMJ.
    The condyle of the mandible, the articular tubercle of the temporal bone, and the mandible fossa of the temporal bone.
  45. Name the 3 ligaments which enhance the TMJ
    Lateral ligament (tempomandibular ligament), Sphenomandibular ligament, Stylomandibular ligament.
  46. What are the movements of the TMJ?
    Protrusion, retrusion, elevation, depression.
  47. Name the different joints of the vertebral column
    IV joints, zygapoophysial joints / facet joints, atlanto-occipital joints, atlanto-axial joints.
  48. An outer fibrous part - a ring consisting of
    concentric lamellae of fibrocartilage forming the circumference of the IV disc. It provides strong bond between adjacent vertebrae.
    Anulus fibrosus
  49. The central core of the IV disc. It is a gelatinous central mass and acts like a shock absorber for forces and like a semifluid ball bearing during movements of the verterbral column.
    Nucleus pulposus.
  50. True or false: There is no IV disc between C1 and C2
    True
  51. Extends from the pelvic surface of the sacrum to the anterior tubercle of C1 and occipital bone anterior to the foramen magnum. Maintains stability of the joints and prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column
    Anterior longitudinal ligament.
  52. Runs from C2 to sacrum within the vertebral canal along the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies prevents hyperflexion of the vertebral column
    Posterior longitudinal ligament.
  53. Connects two adjacent vertebral arches. Plane synovial joints between the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Each joint is surrounded by thin, loose joint capsule. Permits gliding movement between the vertebrae.
    Zygapophysial joints / facet joints.
  54. connect vertebral arches, enhance facet joints, bind the adjoining vertebrae
    together form part of the posterior wall of
    the vertebral canal
    Ligamenta flava / yellow ligament.
  55. Connect adjoining spinous processes
    Interspinous ligament
  56. Connects the apices of the spinous processes from C7 to the sacrum
    Supraspinous ligament.
  57. Extends from the external occipital protuberance and posterior border of foramen magnum to the spinous processes of cervical vertebrae. Connects skull and vertebral column and is for muscle attachment.
    Nuchal ligament.
  58. Connecting adjacent transverse processes.
    Intertransverse ligament.
  59. Articulations between the lateral masses of atlas (C1 ) and the occipital condyles of occipital bone, no IV discs
    Atlanto-occipital joints.
  60. What type of joint is the atlanto-occipital joint?
    Synovial joint of the condyloid type and has thin, loose capsule.
  61. What are the movements of the atlanto-occipital joint?
    Main movement is flexion, little lateral bending and rotation.
  62. Connects C1 to the occipital bone to help prevent excessive movement.
    Anterior and posterior Atlanto-occipital membranes
  63. How many atlanto-axial joints are there?
    There are 3. Two lateral atlanto-axial joints between the lateral masses of C1 and C2 vertebrae (plane-type synovial joints). One median atlanto-axial joint C1 between the dens of C2 and the anterior arch of the atlas (pivot joint).
  64. What are the movements of the atlanto-axial joints?
    Flexion, rotation, lateral bending. During rotation movement,the skull and C1 rotate on C2 as aunit. The dens of C2 is the pivot.
  65. Connects two tubercles on the medial aspects of the lateral masses of C1. It holds the dens of C2 against the anterior of C1
    Transverse ligament of the atlas.
  66. Pass from transverse ligament to theoccipital bone superiorly and to the body of C2 inferiorly
    Longitudinal bands
  67. Which two ligaments for the cruciate ligament?
    Transverse ligament and longitudinal bands.
  68. Connects the sides of the dens to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum
    Alar ligaments
  69. Name the joints of the thoracic wall
    Vertebral joints, costo-vertebral joints, sterno-costal joints, sterno-clavicular joints.
  70. With what does the head of each typical rib articulate?
    Demifacets of two adjacent thoracic vertebrae and the IV disc between them.
  71. The head of which ribs articulate only with their own vertebral bodies?
    1st, 11th, 12th, and sometimes 10th.
  72. What enhances the the joints of the heads of ribs?
    Joint capsules and ligaments.
  73. What are the movements of joints of heads of ribs?
    Slight gliding in each joints.
  74. What does the tubercle of a typical rib articulate with?
    Costal facet of the transverse process of corresponding vertebra.
  75. What strengthens the costotransverse joints?
    Costotransverse ligament.
  76. What are the movements of the costo-transverse joints?
    Some rotation can occur in the 1st to 6th rib, resulting in some elevation and depression of the distal ends of the ribs (1st to 6th) and sternum in the sagittal plane. Gliding and pivoting in 7th to 10th because their flat articular surfaces, resulting in elevation and depression of the ribs in the transverse plane
  77. Which ribs articulate with the sternum?
    1st to 7th pairs of costal cartilages
  78. Which ligaments are involved in the sternocostal joints?
    anterior and posterior radiate sternocostal ligaments
  79. What are the movements of the thoracic wall?
    elevation (inspiration) and depression (expiration)
  80. Name the 3 pelvic joints
    Sacroiliac joints, lumbrosacral joints, pubic symphysis.
  81. What are the ligaments involved in the sacro-iliac joints?
    • Between ilium and sacrum: Sacro-iliac ligaments
    • Between ischium and sacrum: Sacro-tuberous ligament, Sacro-spinous ligament
  82. Name the 3 parts of the sacro-iliac ligaments
    Anterior, interosseous, posterior
  83. Sacro-tuberous ligament attachements
    Sacrum and ischial tuberosity
  84. Sacrospinous ligament attachments
    Sacrum and ischial spine.
  85. What are the articulations of the lumbro-sacral joints?
    One IV joint between L5 and S1, Two zygapophysial joints between the articular processes of these vertebrae
  86. Which ligament is involved in the lumbo-sacral joint and what are its attachments?
    Iliolumbar ligament unit the ilia and L5 vertebra.
  87. Superior attachment of SCM
    Mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone.
  88. Inferior attachment of SCM
    • Sternal head: Anterior surface of manubrium of sternum
    • Clavicular head: superior surface of medial third of clavicle.
  89. Unilateral action of SCM
    Laterally flexes and rotates the head and neck so the ear approaches the shoulder of the same side.
  90. Bilateral action of SCM
    Neck flexion.
  91. Common points of deep or intrinsic back muscles
    Extend from the pelvis to the skull - specifically act on the vertebral column, maintain posture and produce movements of vertebral column - enclosed by fascia - innervated by posterior rami of spinal nerves.
  92. Extensive fascial sheet that splits into anterior and posterior layers, enclosing the deep back muscles.
    Thoracolumbar fascia
  93. Superficial layer of the back muslces
    Splenius muscles
  94. Secondary role of superficial layer - splenius muscles
    Cover and hold the deep vertical muscles in position.
  95. Origin of splenius
    Nuchal ligament and spinous processes of C7 - T3 or T4 vertebrae
  96. Insertion of splenius capitis
    Mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral third of superior nuchal line of occipital bone
  97. Insertion of splenius cervicis
    Transverse process of C1-C3 or C4 vertebrae
  98. Main action of slpenius
    • One side: lateral flex and rotate head to the side of active muscles
    • Both sides: extend head and neck
  99. Intermediate layer of the back muscles
    Erector spinae (Sacrospinalis)
  100. Name the 3 columns of the chief extensor of the vertebral column
    • Iliocostalis: Lateral column
    • Longissimus: intermediate column
    • Spinalis: Medial column
  101. Common origin of the erector spinae muscles
    Broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supro-iliac ligament.
  102. Iliocostalis insertion
    Fibers run superiorly to ribs and cervical transverse processes.
  103. Longissimus insertion
    To ribs between tubercles and angles, to transverse processes in thoracic and cervical regions, and to mastoid process of temporal bone.
  104. Insertion of spinalis
    To spinous processes in the upper thoracic region and to skull.
  105. Main action of Erector Spinae
    • Bilaterally: extend vertebral column and head
    • Unilaterally: laterally flex vertebral column
  106. Deep layer of back muscle
    Transverso-spinal muscle group
  107. 3 muscles of the transverso-spinal muscle group
    • Semispinalis - Superficial
    • multifidus - deeper
    • rotatores - deepest
  108. They originate from transverse processes of vertebrae to spinous processes of more superior vertebrae. they occupy the space between transverse and spinous processes
    Transverso-spinal muscle group
  109. Semispinalis origin
    Transverse process of C4 - T12
  110. Semispinalis insertion
    superomedially to occipital bone and spinous processes in thoracic and cervical regions, spanning 4 - 6 segments.
  111. Semispinalis main action
    Extend head, thoracic and cervical regions of vertebral column and rotate them contralaterally.
  112. Multifidus origin
    Posterior aspects of sacrum and ilium, transverse processes of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and articular processes of the C4 - C7
  113. Multifidus insertion
    Superomedially to entire length of spinous processed of vertebrae above, spannin 2 - 4 segments
  114. Multifidus main action
    Stabilizes vertebrae during local movements of vertebral column. Unilateral contraction rotates to contralateral side.
  115. Rotatores origin
    Transverse processes of vertebrae
  116. Rotatores insertion
    Pass superomedially to attach to the root of the spinous processes of the next one or two vertebrae superiorly, spanning 1 - 2 segments
  117. Rotatores main action
    Proprioception organs. Stabilize vertebrae and assists with local extension and rotary movements of vertebral column.
  118. Which 3 muscles form the Minor Deep Layer of the back.
    Interspinal, intertransverse, levatores costarum.
  119. Muscles in the thoracic wall
    • External intercostals (superior layer)
    • Internal intercostals (middle layer)
    • Innermost intercostals (deepest layer)
  120. Muscles in the thoracic wall superior attachment
    Inferior border of ribs
  121. Muscles in the thoracic wall inferior attachment
    Superior border of ribs below
  122. Muscles in the thoracic wall main action
    • Elevate ribs: external intercostals and probably innermost intercostals
    • Depress ribs: Internal intercostals
  123. Occupy the intercostal spaces. Fibers run inferoanteriorly from rib above to the rib below. Are continuous inferiorly with the external oblique muscles in the anterolateral abdominal wall. Muscles of inspiration, elevate the ribs.
    External intercostal muscles.
  124. Run deep too and at right angles to the external intercostals. Fibers run inferoposteriorly form the inferior border of the ribs to the superior borders of the ribs inferior to them. Continuous with internal oblique in anterolateral abdominal wall. Muscles of expiration, depress ribs.
    Internal Intercostal Muscles.
  125. Similar to the internal intercostals in fibers running direction and deep parts of them.
    Innermost Intercostals Muscles
  126. What separates the Innermost Intercostals from Internal Intercostals?
    Intercostal nerves and vessels.
  127. Muscles of the anteriolateral abdominal wall
    • 3 flat: External oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominal
    • 2 vertical: rectus abdominis, pyramidalis.
  128. Aponeuroses of the 3 flat muscles of the abdominal wall interlace there
    Linea alba
  129. Fibrous band running vertically from the pubic symphysis to the xiphoid process and is the central attachment for all the abdominal muscles.
    Linea alba.
  130. The largest and most superficial of the three flat anterolateral abdominal muscles
    External Oblique
  131. External Oblique origin
    External surface of 5th-12th ribs.
  132. External Oblique insertion
    Linea alba pubic tubercle, and anterior half of iliac crest.
  133. External Oblique main action
    Compress and support abdominal viscera, flex and rotates trunk.
  134. Internal oblique origin
    Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior two-thirds of iliac crest and lateral half of inquinal ligament.
  135. Internal oblique insertion
    Inferior borders of 10-12 ribs, linea alba, and pubis via conjoint tendon.
  136. Internal oblique main action
    Compress and support abdominal viscera. Flex and rotate trunk.
  137. Innermost of the three flat abdominal muscles.
    Transverse abdominal
  138. Transverse abdominal origin
    Internal surface of 7-12 costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and lateral third of inquinal ligament.
  139. Transverse abdominal insertion
    Linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, superior ramus of pubis
  140. Transverse abdominal main action
    Compress and support abdominal viscera
  141. Strong, incomplete fibrous compartment of the two vertical muscles of the abdominal wall. Is formed by the decussation and interweaving of the aponeuroses of the flat abdominal muscles.
    Rectus sheath.
  142. Rectus abdominis origin
    Pubic symphysis and pubic crest
  143. Rectus abdominis insertion
    Xiphoid process and 5-7 costal cartilages.
  144. Abnchors the Rectus abdominis transversely
    Tendinous intersections
  145. Rectus abdominis main action
    Flex trunk, compress abdominal viscera, and stabilizes and controls tilt of pelvis.
  146. Summary of functions and actions of the anterolateral abdominal muscles.
    Form a stron expendable support for the anterolateral abdominal wall. Abdominal viscera protection. Abdominal contents compression. Intra-abdominal pressure, assisting expiration, defecation, micturition, and parturition. Move trunk, flex and rotate v.column, bend it laterally, and help maintain posture.
  147. Muscles of the posterior abdominal wall
    Quadratus lumborum
  148. Quadratus lumborum origin
    Medial half of inferior border of 12th rib and tips of lumbar transverse processes
  149. Quadratus lumborum insertion
    Iliolumbar ligament and iliac crest
  150. Quadratus lumborum main action
    Extends and laterally flexes v.column; fixes 12th rib during respiration.
  151. Dome-shaped musculotendinous partition. Separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Chief muscle of inspiration
    Thoracic Diaphragm.
  152. Bony ring, incomplete posteriorly, formed by the scapulae and clavicles, which is completed anteriorly by the manubrium of the sternum.
    Pectoral girdle.
  153. A doubly curved long bone, with two ends: sternal end and lateral or acromial end
    Clavicle
  154. The sternal end of the clavicle articulates with...
    the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint.
  155. Lateral or acromial end of the clavicle articulates with...
    The acromion of the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint.
  156. Clavicle function
    Connects the upper limb to the trunk. Serves as a strut from which the scapula and free limb are suspended. Transmits shocks form the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
  157. Articulates with manubrium  to form sternoclavicular joint
    Sternal facet
  158. In the lateral end articulates with acromion of the scapula to form acromioclavicular joint
    Acromial facet
  159. For the attachment of the deltoid muscle
    Deltoid tubercle
  160. Gives attachment to the conoid ligament
    Conoid tubercle
  161. Is the site of attachment of the subclavius muscle
    Subclavian groove
  162. Binds the 1st rib to the clavicle
    Impression for costoclavicular ligament
  163. Where the trapezoid ligament attaches
    Trapezoid line.
  164. three fossae of the scapula
    Subscapular, supraspinous, infraspinous.
  165. Landmark of point of the shoulder and articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle.
    Acromion
  166. Shallow, concave, oval fossa, and articulates with the head of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint.
    Glenoid cavity
  167. Articulates with glenoid cavity of the scapula
    Head of humerus
  168. Provide attachment and leverage to some scapulohumeral muscles
    Greater and lesser tubercle
  169. Separates the head from the tubercles (humerus)
    Anatomical neck
  170. The narrow part distal to the tubercles and is a common fracture site
    Surgical neck.
  171. Separates the greater tubercle from the lesser tubercle
    Intertubercular (biceptital) groove
  172. Attachment of deltoid on humerus
    Deltoid tuberosity
  173. Posteriorly, the radial nerve and deep artery of the arm lie in the ...
    radial groove
  174. (anterior aspect) receives the coronoid process of the ulna during full extension of the elbow
    Coronoid fossa
  175. (Posterior aspect) accommodates the olecranon of the ulna during full extension of the elbow
    olecranon fossa
  176. Accommodates the edge of the head of the radius when the forearm is fully flexed.
    Radial fossa
  177. they make up the condyle of the humerus
    Epicondyles, trochlea, capitulum, olecranon, coronoid, and radial fossa.
  178. Two articular surfaces of the condyle
    Lateral capitulum and medial trochlea
  179. Articular surface of the condyle for articulation with the head of the radius
    Capitulum
  180. Articular surface of the condyle for articulation with the trochlear notch of the ulna.
    Medial trochlea.
  181. Two projections at the proximal end of the ulna
    Olecranon which projects posteriorly and coronoid projecting anteriorly
  182. Articulates with the trochlea of the humerus
    Trochlear notch
  183. Articulates with the head of the radius
    radial notch
  184. Attachment of the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle on the ulna
    Tuberosity of the ulna
  185. Just for muscle attachment on the ulna
    Supinator crest and supinator fossa
  186. At which end is located the head of the ulna and ulnar styloid process
    T or F: the ulna does not articulate directly with the carpal bones.
  187. The lateral and shorter of the two forearm bones
    Radius
  188. The radius articulates with ...
    The humerus, ulna and carpus.
  189. The head of the radius articulates with the ____ of the humerus, peripherally with the ____ of the ulna
    capitulum, radial notch
  190. At its distal end, the ____ accommodates the head of the ulna.
    ulnar notch
  191. T or F: the radial styloid process is larger and longer than the ulnar styloid process
    True
  192. Name the carpal bones
    Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate.
  193. Boat-shaped bone, articulates proximally with the radius
    Scaphoid
  194. Moon-shaped bone, articulates proximally with the radius
    Lunate
  195. Three-cornered pyramidal bone, articulates proximally with the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint
    Triquetrum
  196. Small bean-shaped bone, lies on the palmar surface.
    pidiform
  197. Four-sided carpal bone
    trapezium
  198. Wedge shaped carpal bone
    Trapezoid
  199. Carpal bone with a rounded head
    Capitate
  200. Carpal bone with a hooked process

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