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the distinct mental set of perspectives/assumptions influence and define how people view topics
a mentality that often constrains alternative approaches because of its narrow mentality
Bruner & Potter Paradigm
generating a hypothesis at an out-of-focus stimuli creates a mental set!!! BEWARE the Bruner & Potter Paradigm!!!!
creating mental sets blocks your solving the problem!
What are some zeitgeists in psychology history in order and who are their prime researchers?
- Structuralism - Wilhelm Wundt - introspection
- Associationism - Ebbinghaus - reductionistic
- Functionalism - William James & John Dewey - observation
- Behavioralism - Bartlett - experimentation
- Gestalt - the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Overlearning produces what kind of effects in people's memory?
Overlearning means slower forgetting. Additional rehearsals past mastery results in greater savings in relearning.
How is it that some individuals remember more than 5-9 (7 plus or minus 2) items when performing a recall?
The amount of "objects" a person can remember varies from 5 - 9 objects. Chunking helps expand the amount of "objects" you can keep in these pockets by remembering the semantic of the object as opposed to the numeric.
What are things that are true and false about the "computer metaphor" about the stages that information goes through in human processing?
The Information-Processing Approach claims that peoples' mental processes operate through a series of "storage areas," but memory, knowledge gestalt theory, and consciousness research all prove this to be false.
The behavioralist tactics we use in cognitive psychology are inspired by what?
Their scientific procedural experimental research methods and operational definitions
What does the Atkinson-Shiffrin model propose?
Sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory are 3 discrete sections that always secede one another in order, as does a computer
What defines a computer simulation as compared to artificial intelligence designs?
Computer simulations are meant to be based on the cognitive processes of humans, whereas artificial intelligence are created to retrieve a specific knowledge base as efficiently as possible
How can long-term memories be stored?
- Semantically (meanings)
- Visually (photos)
- Auditory (sounds)
Cognitive psychology focuses on what?
- It focuses on:
- Active mental processes and the mental stages of information processing
- Top-Down Perception - the way we perceive things based on our life experiences
- Bottom-Up Perception - the way we receive, interpret logically, and process conclusively external stimulus
- Internal representations (because we do not have tabula rasa minds)
- That experiences are transformed into representations that are meaningful in the real world (symbolic [words/numbers] & analogue [images] representations)
What kinds of research methods are cognitive psychologists most likely to rely on for gathering conclusive experimental data and evidence for a causal effect?
- In Order from Most likely to Least Likely:
- Systematic, controlled lab experiments
- Psychobiological data
- Computer simulation
- Self-report measure
- Case Studies
- Naturalistic observation
- Artificial intelligence