Ch 7 Learning psychology

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Ch 7 Learning psychology
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  1. the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors, conditioning is a type of learning.

    associative learning
    learning
    neutral stimulus
    Continuous reinforce
    learning
  2. learning that certain events occur together. The events may be response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).

    associative learning
    learning
    classical conditioning
    associative learning
  3. any event or situation that evokes a response.


    cognitive learning
    stimulus
    neutral stimulus
    associative learning
    stimulus
  4. the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through Language.

    classical conditioning
    stimulus
    cognitive learning
    learning
    cognitive learning
  5. type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.


    classical conditioning
    stimulus
    learning
    associative learning
    classical conditioning
  6. he view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)


    neutral stimulus
    ACQUISITION
    discrimination
    behaviorism
    behaviorism
  7. classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.


    unconditioned stimulus
    neutral stimulus
    unconditioned response
    discrimination
    neutral stimulus
  8. In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as sativation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth).


    unconditioned response
    conditioned response
    unconditioned stimulus
    operant conditioning
    unconditioned response (UR)
  9. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR)


    conditioned response
    unconditioned stimulus
    ACQUISITION
    primary reinforcer
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  10. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response (UR)


    operant conditioning
    punishment
    unconditioned stimulus
    conditioned stimulus
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  11. In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus?


    conditioned response
    discrimination
    law of effect  
    Continuous reinforce
    conditioned response (CR)
  12. classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response


    conditioned stimulus
    discrimination
    primary reinforce
    Continuous reinforce
    conditioned stimulus (CS)
  13. In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral, stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.


    ACQUISITION
    law of effect 
    variable-interval schedule
    Acqusition
  14. n classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.


    operant conditioning
    law of effect
    associative learning
    discrimination
    discrimination
  15. a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher. B.F. Skinner -father of ______________.


    law of effect
    punishment
    respondent behavior
    operant conditioning
    operant conditioning
  16. Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors Followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.  

    unconditioned stimulus
    discrimination
    law of effect
    law of effect
  17. father of classic conditioning.


    Pavlov
    Watson
    Skinner
    Captain Hook
    Pavlov
  18. founder of behaviorism



    Pavlov
    Watson
    Skinner
    Darth Vader
    Watson
  19. ____________  is influenced by biological, psychological, & socio-cultural influences.


    learning
    latent learning
    intrinsic motivation
    observation learning
    learning
  20. a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.


    modeling
    observation learning
    prosocial behavior
    cognitive map
    cognitive map
  21. Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.



    Latent learning
    Patent Learning
    modeling
    prosocial behavior
    latent learning
  22. desire to perform a behavior effectively For its own sake


    intrinsic motivation
    extrinsic motivation
    observation learning
    behavior
    intrinsic motivation
  23. a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatening behavior.


    intrinsic motivation
    extrinsic motivation
    modeling
    motivation
    extrinsic motivation
  24. learning by observing others, ie. Social learning theory (Albert Bandura)


    extrinsic motivation
    mirror neutrons -
    modeling
    observation learning
    observation learning
  25. the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.


    modeling
    prosocial behavior
    behaviorism
    modeling
  26. Frontal lobe neurons that some scientist believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. the brains mirroring of smoothes action may enable imitation and empathy.


    mirror neutrons
    prosocial behavioir
    Cognition
    neutral stimulus
    mirror neutrons
  27. positive, constructive, helpful behavior, the opposite of antisocial behavior.


    prosocial behavior
    observation learning-
    prosocial behavior
  28. in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a Food or water reinforce; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or Key


    reinforcement
    operant chamber
    primary reinforce
    Continuous reinforce
    operant chamber
  29. in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it Follows.


    reinforcement
    positive reinforcement
    negative reinforcement
    reinforcement
  30. an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.



    shaping
    immediate reinforcers
    delayed reinforcers
    shaping
  31. increasing behaviors by presenting positive reintorcers. A positive ^ reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. 

    positive reinforcement
    negative reinforcement
    immediate reinforcers
    delayed reinforcers
    positive reinforcement
  32. Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A _____________ is any stimulus that, when removed arter a response, strengthens the response.

    negative reinforcer
    primary reinforcer
    delayed reinforcers
    negative reinforcer
  33. an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need


    conditioned reinforcer
    primary reinforcer
    Continuous reinforcei
    fixed-ratio schedule
    primary reinforcer
  34. a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with aprimary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer. money, clothes


    shaping-
    reinforcement
    Continuous reinforcer
    conditioned reinforcer
    conditioned reinforcer
  35. reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs



    Continuous reinforcer
    reinforcement
    variable-ratio schedule
    Continuous reinforcer
  36. Sheduled pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.



    partial (intermittent) reinforcement
    reinforcement
    conditioned reinforcer
    primary reinforcer
    reinforcement
  37. reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.



    Continuous reinforcer
    delayed reinforcers
    immediate reinforcers
    partial (intermittent) reinforcement
    partial (intermittent) reinforcement
  38. in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses, (coffee shop cara ... out y get 10th free)


    fixed-ratio schedule
    partial (intermittent) reinforcement
    variable-ratio schedule
    fixed-interval schedule
    fixed-ratio schedule
  39. in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.


    variable-ratio schedule
    fixed-interval schedule
    fixed-ratio schedule
    variable-interval schedule i
    variable-ratio schedule
  40. an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows.


    respondent behavior
    operant behavior
    punishment
    conditioned response
    punishment
  41. behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.


    punishment
    operant behavior
    respondent behavior
    behaviorism
    respondent behavioir
  42. ehavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences, at home, sports, or work, school.



    operant behavior-
    ispondent behavior
    respondent behavior t
    punishment
    operant behavior-
  43. Learning is defined as "the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring ____________ or ______________.
    information; behaviors
  44. Two forms of associative learning are classical conditioning, in which the organism associates ____________,and operant conditioning, in which the organism associates ____________.

    a. two or more responses; a response and consequence 
    b. two or more stimuli; two or more responses 
    c. more stimuli; a response and consequence 
    d. two or more responses; two or more stimuli
    C
  45. •. In Pavlov's experiments, the tone started as a neutral stimulus, and then became a(n)____________ stimulus.
    3. conditioned
  46. Dogs have been taught to salivate to a circle but not to a square. This process is an example of ______________.
    discrimination
  47. After Watson and Rayner classically conditioned Little Albert to fear a white rat, the child later showed fear in response to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat. This illustrates 


    a. extinction. 
    b. generalization. 
    c. spontaneous recovery. 
    d. discrimination between two stimuli.
    5. b
  48. Thorndike's law of effect was the basis for ________work on operant conditioning and behavior control.
    Skinner's
  49. One way to change behavior is to reward natural behaviors in small steps, as they get closer and closer to a desired behavior. This process is called ________
    shaping
  50. Your dog is barking so loudly that it's making your ears ring. You clap your hands, the dog stops barking, your ears stop ringing, and you think to yourself, "I'll have to do that when he barks again." The end of the barking was for you a 


    a- positive reinforcer. 
    b. negative reinforcer. 
    c. positive punishment. 
    d. negative punishment.
    B
  51. Reinforcing a desired response only some of the times it occurs is called ___________reinforcement.
    partial
  52. A restaurant is running a special deal. After you buy four meals at full price, your fifth meal will be free. This is an example of a ____________Shedule of reinforcement. 



    a. fixed-ratio
    b. variable-ratio 
    c. fixed-interval 
    d. variable-interval
    A
  53. The partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after unpredictable time periods is a ________________ - _____________ schehedule.
    13. variable-interval
  54. A medieval proverb notes that "a burnt child dreads the fire." In operant conditioning, the burning would be an example of a 

    a. primary reinforcer.
    b. negative reinforcer.
    c. punisher. 
    d. positive reinforcer.
    C
  55. Which research showed that conditioning can occur even when the unconditioned stimulus (US) does not immediately follow the neutral stimulus (NS)? 

    a. The Little Albert experiment 
    b. Pavlov's experiments with dogs 
    c. Watson's behaviorism studies 
    d. Garcia and Koeliing's taste-aversion studies
    d
  56. Taste-aversion research has shown that some animals develop aversions to certain tastes but not to sights or sounds. This finding supports 

    a. Pavlov's demonstration of generalization. 
    b. Darwin's principle that natural selection favors traits that aid survival. 
    c. Watson s belief that psychologists should study observable behavior, not mentalistic concepts. 
    d. the early behaviorists' view that any organism can be conditioned to any stimulus.
    b
  57. Evidence that cognitive processes play an important role in learning comes in part from studies in which rats 

    a. spontaneously recover previously learned behavior. 
    b. develop cognitive maps. 
    c. exhibit respondent behavior. 
    d. generalize responses.
    b
  58. Rats that explored a maze without any reward were later able to run the maze as well as other rats that had received food rewards for running the maze. The rats that had learned without reinforcement demonstrated _________  __________.
    latent learning
  59. Children learn many social behaviors by imitating parents and other models. This type of learning is called ___________ ___________.
    >. observational learning
  60. According to Bandura, we learn by watching models because we experience ____________nforcement or ___________
    punishment.
    vicarious; vicarious
  61. . Parents are most effective in getting their children to imitate them if 

    a. their words and actions are consistent. 
    b. they have outgoing personalities. 
    c. one parent works and the other stays home to care for the children. 
    d. they carefully explain why a behavior is acceptable in adults but not in children.
    a
  62. Some scientists believe that the brain has ________neurons that enable observation and imitation.
    . mirror
  63. Most experts agree that repeated viewing of TV violence 

    a. makes all viewers significantly more aggressive. 
    b. has little effect on viewers. 
    c. dulls viewers' sensitivity to violence. 
    d. makes viewers angry and frustrated.
    c

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