Exam 2 Psychology 101
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What is counciousness
Awareness of surroundings and yourself.
What is stream of consciousness and who used the term:
A continuous flow of changing thoughts. Term was used by William James in 1890
What defined psychology's early days.
The study of consciousness.
What involves consciousness (4)
- - Attention.
- - Monitoring.
- - Remembering.
- - Planning.
What's parallel processing;
- Is the brain's ability to process different pats of a task simultaneously in different areas:
- - Multiple neural networks are active at once.
- - cerebral cortex
- - Thalamus.
Cerebral cortex is responsible for:
The conscious awareness of the objects of attention
Thalamus is, and what happens if damaged
- The brain's relay station and if it is damaged it might result in coma.
What's a pre-conscious state:
Is when information from your past that is stored in your long term memory and can be accessed if needed. For example, what you did last week.
What's the unconscious state:
Is when information from your past is stored in your long term memory but is not easily accessed. For example, feelings associated with a forgotten childhood event.
repression is Freudian and it happens when:
It happens when we repress painful or disturbing information.
What's implicit memory:
Knowledge of which we are not typically aware (Tying shoes, Factual information)
What's explicit memory:
It's the knowledge that we are aware of
It's a trance like state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus.
- Techniques designed to refocus attention, block out distractions and produce a relax state.
- Some benefits include: treating pain, asthma, high blood pressure, heart problems, skin disorders, diabetes and viral infections.
Adaptive and biological theories of sleep:
- - Adaptive: Humans can conserve energy while it is dark and they cant hunt for food. Also, prevents humans from getting harmed at night.
- - Biological:1.- Pituitary gland releases growht hormones when we sleep. 2.- Repair/restoration theory; sleep restores our brains and vbodies (restores depleted chemicals and remove chemical wastes)
What is the Circadian Rhythm
pattern of sleep-wake cycles that occur on a roughly 24 hour cycle.
What causes our circadian rhythm
Genetic differences and enviromental differences (low sunlight triggers prodiction of melatonin, melatonin induces sleep)
How many stages does a sleep cycle have and how long does it last
there are 4 stages and a REM and they all last 90 minutes.
What happens in first stage of sleep cycle
- - Stage 1 transition into sleep (5 min.)
- At sleep, alpha waves change to theta waves. Also BP slows and BP decreases.
Freud stated that we need dreams for:
Information-processing theory believes that
- - Dreams involve processing information from the day.
- - Dreams could be a mental realm where we can solve problems and think creeativily.
Activation synthesis model believes that
- Developedby J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley in 1977.
- - During sleep the brain has random neural activity.
- - Dreams are an attempt to make sense of daily activity.
- - Dreams reflect the minds efforts to make sense of the brain's neural activity during sleep
Effects of sleep deprivation:
- - Reduced immune system function.
- - Lower ability to concentrate.
- - Higher incident of accidents.
- - Lower productivity
Common sleep disorders
- - Insomnia (most common)
- - Sleep apnea (second most common)
- - Narcolepsy= Excessive daytime sleepiness.
- - Sleepwalking
- - night terrors
What are psychoactive drugs
- Chemical substances that affect the brain functioning, causing changes in behavior, mood and consciousness
How many categories are on psychoactive drugs and what are they:
- 1.- Depressants= Act on the CNS to suppress body processes. ex. alcohol, opioids
- 2.- Stimulants= Act on CNS to increase bodily processes. ex. Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine
- 3.- Hallucinogens= Produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations. ex. LSD, Marijuana
- They work by affecting neurotransmitters.
- The key neurotransmitter is dopamine.
What is learning
is a lasting chance as a result of practice, study, or experience.
What are the 2 types of learning.
- 1.- Non-associative: resulting from experiences with a singular sensory cue.
- * Habituation= weakening of response to a stimulus after repeated presentation.
- * Sensitization= Increase in response to a stimuli after presentation of a strong stimulus.
- 2.- Associative: Connections are formed between two or more stimuli
- * Classical conditioning
- * Operant conditioning
Who developed Classical conditioning
What are the components of classical conditioning
- - Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)= Stimulus that naturally produces a response.
- - Unconditioned response (UCR)= natural physical response to stimulus.
- - Conditioned stimulus (CS)= Stimulus that is originally neutral but after pairing with an unconditioned stimulus becomes meaningful.
- - Conditioned response (CR)= /learned physical response to a previously neutral stimulus.
What are the 4 major conditioning processes
- 1.- Acquisition= initial learning of stimulus-response relationship.
- 2.- Extinction= Diminished responding that happens when the CS (tone) no longer occurs right before UCS (food).
- 3.- Spontaneous recovery= CR can recur after a time delay without need for further conditioning.
- 4.- Stimulus generalization= The tendency of a new stimulus, one that is similar to the original CS, to elicit the CR.
Who developed the Little Albert experiment
John B. Watson
What's a phobia
It's a exaggerated irrational fear associated with a particular stimulus.
What's systematic desensitization
Repeated introduction to feared stimulus without US
Association of a specific food with subsequent illness.(empacho)
Operant conditioning is also known as
operant conditioning is learned by:
Reinforcement and punishment.
Who developed the Law of effect which states that " Behaviors with pleasurable results are likely to continue and those with unpleasant results are less likely to continue.
BF Skinner did not found the operant conditioning theory but he did a lot of research on it
There are two types of reinforcement:
- 1.- Positive: Praise, food, money, or anything positive will increase the likelihood of the behavior happening again (getting good grades after studying.)
- 2.- Negative: removing a constant painful stimulus, will increase the likelihood of the behavior happening again.( put on the seatbelt so loud beeping noise will stop)
There are 2 types of punishment and they are:
- 1.- Positive: Yelling, spanking will discourage the behavior from happening again. (punishment by application)
- 2.- Negative: silent treatment, no car, no phone, will discourage the behavior from happening again. (punishment by removal)
What are the 2 schedules of reinforcement:
- 1.- Continuous= Reinforced everytime.
- 2.- Intermittent= Reinforced only some of the times.
Intermittent reinforcement types
- 1.- Ratio Schedules:
- - Fixed ratio
- - Variable ratio.
- 2.- Interval schedules:
- - Fixed interval
- - Variable interval.
- Through conditioning, people learn that they cannot control their environment and fail
- to do so even when they are able
Latent (aha moment) learning is
When learning occurs without reinforcement and is not used until call for.
How is behavior acquired?
By observing the actions of others.
Who developed the bobo doll experiment and came up with observational learning theory
What factors facilitate learning (5)
- - Timing.
- - Context.
- - Awareness and attention.
- - Non-associative learning.
- - Sleep.
- - Dyslexia.
- - Dyscalculia= disability to learn mathematics.
- -Attention deficit disorder (ADD)= can't pay attention.
- - Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)= inability to pay attention and excessive activity.
What is memory
Recalling past events and past learning
What are the three processes involved in memory
- 1.- encoding: getting information into memory.
- 2.- Storage: retaining memories for future use.
- 3.- Retrieval: Recapturing memories when needed.
Which are the two theories about how memory works
- 1.- Parallel distributing theory: memories are stored as part of a large integrated web of information.
- 2.- Information processing model :information must pass through three stages; sensory memory, working memory and long-term memory,
What is working memory
- Information you are thinking right now:
- - recalled memories.
- - daydreams.
- - problems you are currently solving.
- normally last up to 30 seconds and holds up to 9 items
what's sensory memory
memory that holds all that we hear, see, feel, taste, smell. etc.. Only lasts fractions of a second.
What is long term memory
is the memory that stays for ever and it's permanent
Ways to encode:
- Automatic: Remembering something with no effort.
- Effortful: /when you have to work to memorize something
Types of encoding
- 1.- Phonological= Based on sound.
- 2.- Visual= Based on how the information looks.
- 3.- Semantic= Based on the meaning of the information.
Best methods of effortful encoding
- - Meaning: When we understand what is memorized.
- - Elaboration: Making information personally relevant.
- - Organization: Giving the information a structure that is more familiat.
How to retrieve memories
- - Search process.
- - Activation process.
What helps retrieval
- - Retrieval cues: words, sites.
- - Priming: activation of one piece of information that leads to another piece.
- - Context effects: We remember things better when we first learn them.
Three reasons for forgetting
- 1.- encoding failure.
- 2.- Storage failure.
- 3.- Retrieval failure
explain the 3 theories for retrieval failure
- 1.- Decay theory= Memory traces fade over time.
- 2.- Interference theory=
- - proactive; new info blocks old info.
- - Retroactive; old info blocks new info
- 3.- Motivated forgetting=
- - Suppressed memory: try to forget
- - Repressed memory: blocked from conscious awareness.
- - Remembering things that never happened.
- 1.- source misattribution: Heard info as own.
- 2.- Exposure to misinformation: inacurate distort your recall.
- 3.- Effects of imagination: imagined an event
Types of memory disorders
- - Organic: biological cause( head trauma or disease)
- - Dissociative: No physical cause
Organic memory disorders
- 1.- Amnesic disorder= memory loss
- - antrograde= no new memories
- - retrograde= no memory before amnesia.
- 2.- Denmentia= memory and cognitive loss
- - Alzheimer (caused by neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques.
Dissociative memory disorders:
- 1.- Dissociative amnesia= Can't recall important info of an upsetting nature of one's life. (rape)
- 2.- Dissociative fugue= loss of memory of personal identity.
- 3.- Dissociative identity= two or more personalities.
What is intelligence:
- - Ability to learn.
- - Ability to apply learned material to life.
- - Etacognition: Ability to understand and control cognitive activity.
Spearman's two factor theory
- Factor analysis-statistical method to determine whether two or more items correlate thus forming a cluster:
- - s factor: specific factor tied to a specific area of functioning.
- - g factor: general factor relating to all clusters.
Thurstone theory,primary mental abilities that do not rely on general intelligence are:(6)
- 1.- word fluency
- 2.- number
- 3.- Spatial ability
- 4.- Associative memory
- 5.- perceptual speed.
- 6.- Reasoning.
Who gave us the multiple intelligences theory which describes eight independent intelligences
- Howard Gardner and those intelligences were
- - Linguistics
- - Logical-mathematical
- - Musical
- - Spatial
- - Bodily-kinesthetic
- - Interpersonal
- - Intrapersonal
- - Naturalistic.
Who gave us the Triarchic theory of intelligence and what interacting components conform it
- Robert Stenberg and it said that intelligence is made up of three interacting components:
- - internal analytic: related to IQ test.
- - External creative
- - Experimental practical: help us to adapt to enviroment
Who gave us the bioecological modelof intelligence
- Stephen Ceci and said that intelligence is a function of the interaction amogn:
- - Potential abilities.
- - Environment.
- - Motivation.
Forms of intelligence
- 1.- Emotional.
- 2.- Social.
- 3.- Wisdom.
- 4.- Creativity.
- 5.- Personal characteristics.
Measure intelligence through psychological testing.
Intelligence test construction and interpretation
- - Standarization: use of uniform procedures.
- - Reliability: Consistency in measurement.
- - Validity: Accuracy of the measurement.
What are the types of central tendency
- 1.- Mode= most frequent value.
- 2.- Median= middle value.
- 3.- Mean= Average.
Stanford-Binet and WAIS
- - Popular intelligence test
- - High degrees of reliability.
- - Predictive of school performance.
- - High correlation between scores and number of years of schooling.
Flynn effect is:
Rise in average IQ scores over time throughout the world.
Bell curve controversy
- Book describing research on the origins and nature of intelligence, concluding that:
- - conventional IQ tests measure intelligence accurately
- - IQ is heritable.
What happens on 2nd stage of sleep cycle
- Stage 2 harder to wake (15-20 mins)More relaxed. Sleep spindles (burst of rapid brain waves.
What happens on 3rd stage of sleep cycle
- Stage 3 Deeper sleep (5-15 mins.)Theta waves and delta waves.
What happens on 4th stage of sleep cycle
- Stage 4 Deepest sleep (20-30 mins.)Slow HR, brain and body in total relaxation.Deepest sleep. All delta waves.
Whats the REM stage pf sleep cycle
- REM (Rapid eye movement)Dreaming
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