ch 8 psychology

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ch 8 psychology
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  1. is learning that has persisted over time; it is information that has been acquired, stored, ana can be retrieved.

    > recall
    •recognition
    •relearning
    Memory
    Memory
  2. retrieving Information that is not Currently in your conscious awareness out that was learned at an earlier time.A fill-in-the-blank question tests your recall.


    •recall
    •recognition
    •relearning
    encoding.
    •recall
  3. identfyirig items previously learned.A multiple-choice question tests your ___________.



    •relearning
    •recall
    •recognition
    storage
    •recognition
  4. learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time. When you study for a Anal exam or engage a language used in early childhood, you will relearn the material more easily than you did initially


    •relearning
    •recall
    •recognition
    •relearning
  5. processing of information into the memory system. ►get information into our brain, a process called __________.



    encoding.
    •relearning
    •recall
    encoding.
  6. he retention of encoded information over time. •retain that information, a process called __________.



    storage
    encoding
    storage.
  7. the process of getting information out of memory storage.  > later get the information back out, a process called _________.



    retrieval
    •recall
    retrieval.
  8. emphasize the active processing that takes place in this middle stage.


    WOrKlng memory
    Encoding
    WOrKIng memory
  9. the facts and experiences we can consciously know and declare (thus, also called declarative memories).We encode __________ through conscious effortful processing.

    • iconic memory,
    explicit memories
    • echoic memory
    explicit memories
  10. • other information skips the conscious encoding track and barges directly into storage.This automatic processing, which happens without our awareness, produces _____________(also called nondeclarative memories).


    • explicit memories-
    implicit memories
    • iconic memory
    implicit memories
  11. a fleeting sensory memory of visual stimuli.



    • echoic memory
    • iconic memory
    • iconic memory,
  12. an impeccable, though fleeting, memory for auditory stimuli.



    • echoic memory
    • iconic memory,  
    • echoic memory
  13. those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.


    • chunking
    • mnemonics memory<
    • Hierarchies
    • mnemonics memory
  14. organizing items into familial manageable units; often occurs automatically.

    • Hierarchies
    • chunking
    • chunking
  15. composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts. Gordon Bower


    • chunkinig
    • Hierarchies
    • Hierarchies
  16. asic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.


    • repression-
    • proactive-
    • retroactive interference-
    • repression
  17. retrieval failure
    disruptive affect of prior learning on the recall of the information.


    • retroactive interference-
    • proactive- interference
    • retroactive interference-
  18. retrieval failure
    disruptive affect of prior learning on the recall of the information.


    • retroactive interference-
    • proactive- interference-
    • proactive- interference-
  19. ■forgetting as we get older, not paying attention to stimulus


    storage decay-
    encoding failure-
    encoding failure-
  20. affects memory, decaying of memory after its encoded.


    encoding failure
    storage decay-
    storage decay-
  21. Distributed Practice
    the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.


    • testing effect 
    • spacing effect
    • spacing effect
  22. enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, informa-tion. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval Practice effect or test-enhanced learning.


    • testing effect
    • spacing effect
    • testing effect
  23. encodes on a very basic level, such as a word's letters or, at a more interme-diate level, a word's sound


    shallow processing
    • Deep processing
    • shallow processing
  24. encodes semantically, based on the meamng of the words.The deeper (more meaningful) the processing, the better our retention.


    • Deep processing
    • shallow processing <
    • Deep processing
  25. a neutral center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.

    • amygdala
    hippocampus
    hippocampus
  26. explicit-memory system:


    cerebellum and basal ganglia
    Frontal lobe and hippo
    • amygdala
    Frontal lobe and hippo
  27. implicit-memory system:


    cerebellum and basal ganglia
    Frontal lobe and hippo
    cerebellum and basal ganglia
  28. is with long term memory


    relearning
    recognition,
    - recall
    recall
  29. is with shorter term memory, happens quickly



    recall,
    recognition,
    relearning.
    recognition
  30. the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory



    recall,
    recognition,
    • priming
    • priming
  31. retrieve same way it was coded.



    • context-dependent memory-
    • state-dependent memory -
    • serial position effect-
    • context-dependent memory-
  32. what state of mind you are in is the best way to remember it (drunk or sober


    • context-dependent memory-
    • state-dependent memory -
    • serial position effect-
    • state-dependent memory -
  33. our tendency to recall best the last (a Regency effect) and first items (a primary effect) in a list.


    • serial position effect
    • state-dependent memory ■
    • context-dependent memory-
    • serial position effect-
  34. can not form new memories, can form memories of non verbal task


    anterograde amnesia-
    retrograde amnesia-
    anterograde amnesia-
  35. can not retrieve old memories


    anterograde amnesia
    retrograde amnesia
    retrograde amnesia
  36. l psychologist who asks you to write down as many objects as you can remember having seen a few minutes earlier is testing your ___________.
    recall
  37. The psychological terms for taking in information, retaining it, and later getting it back out are ___________,__________ & _________.
    encoding; storage; retrieval
  38. The concept of working memory 

    a. clarifies the idea of short-terra memory by focusing on the active processing that occurs in this stage. 
    b. splits short-term memory into two substages—sensory memory and working memory. 
    c. splits short-term memory into two areas—working (retrievable) memory and inaccessible memory. 
    d. clarifies the idea of short-term memory by focusing on space, time, and frequency.
    a
  39. Sensory memory may be visual (________ memory) or auditory (_______ memory)
    iconic; echoic
  40. Our short-term memory for new information is limited to about_______ items.
    seven
  41. Memory aids that use visual imagery (such as peg words) or other organizational devices (such as acronyms) are called ________.
    . mnemonics
  42. The hippocampus seems to function as a 

    a. temporary processing site for explicit memories. 
    b. temporary processing site for implicit memories. 
    c. permanent storage area for emotion-based memories. 
    d. permanent storage area for iconic and echoic memories.
    a
  43. Amnesia following hippocampus damage typically leaves people unable to learn new facts or recall recent events. However, they may be able to learn new skills, such as riding a bicycle, which is an _____________(explicit/implicit) memory.
    implicit
  44. Long-term potentiation (LTP) refers to 

    a. emotion-triggered hormonal changes. 
    b. the role of the hippocampus in processing explicit memories. 
    c. an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. 
    d. aging people's potential for learning.
    b
  45. Specific odors, visual images, emotions, or other associations that help us access a memory are examples of 

    a. relearning.
    b. deja vu. 
    c. declarative memories. 
    d. retrieval cues.
    d
  46. When tested immediately after viewing a list of words, people tend to recall the first and last items more readily than those in the middle. When retested after a delay, they are most likely to recall 

    a. the first items on the list. 
    b. the first and last items on the list. 
    c. a few items at random. 
    d. the last items on the list.
    a
  47. When forgetting is due to encoding failure, meaningless information has not been transferred from 

    a. the environment into sensory memory. 
    b. sensory memory into long-term memory. 
    c. long-term memory into short-term memory. 
    d. short-term memory into long-term memory.
    d
  48. Ebbinghaus' "forgetting curve" shows that after an initial decline, memory for novel information tends to 

    a. increase slightly. 
    b. decrease noticeably. 
    c. decrease greatly. 
    d. level out.
    d
  49. The hour before sleep is a good time to memorize information, because going to sleep after learning new material minimizes _____________— interference.
    retroactive
  50. . Freud proposed that painful or unacceptable memories are blocked from consciousness through a mechanism called _____
    . repression
  51. One reason false memories form is our tendency to fill in memory gaps with our reasonable guesses and assumptions, sometimes based on misinformation. This tendency is an example of 

    a. proactive interference. 
    b. the misinformation effect. 
    c. retroactive interference. 
    d. the forgetting curve.
    b
  52. We may recognize a face at a social gathering but be unable to remember how we know that person. This is an example of _____ _______.
    source amnesia
  53. 20. When a situation triggers the feeling that "I've been here before," you are experiencing ______ ______.
    . deja vu
  54. Children can be accurate eyewitnesses if 

    a. interviewers give the children hints about what really happened. 
    b. a neutral person asks nonleading questions soon after the event, in words the children can understand. 
    c. the children have a chance to talk with involved adults before the interview. 
    d. interviewers use precise technical and medical terms.
    b
  55. 2- Psychologists involved in the study of memories of abuse tend to DISAGREE about which of the following statements? 

    a- Memories of events that happened before age 3 are not reliable. 
    b. tend to repress extremely upsetting memories. 
    c. Memories can be emotionally upsetting. 
    d. Sexual abuse happens.
    b

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