chapter 1 exam 1 review

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chapter 1 exam 1 review
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2014-10-19 16:47:32
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exam one
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  1. Biologyical molecules are constructed from a limited number of?

    Certain _______ ________ and linkages characterize different types of biomolecules.

    During chemical evolution, what happened to the simple compounds?

    Self-replicating molecules would have been subject to what?
    Elements

    functional groups

    Condensed to form more complex molecules and polymers.

    Natural selection
  2. What are the eleven most abundant elements in the Human Body?
    What is the connection?
    • cnoh
    • Ca
    • P
    • K
    • S
    • Cl
    • Na
    • Mg

    cnohca pks clnamg
  3. Although life has an amazing amount of diversity, the chemical processes are accomplished with a relatively _______ number of functional groups.
    Limited
  4. Structure

    amine
    alcohol
    thiol
    ether
    • Functional group/linkage
    •  amino group
    •  hydroxyl group
    •  sulfhydryl group
    •  ether linkage
  5. Structure
    aldehyde, ketone
    carboxylic acid
    ester
    thioester
    • Functional group or linkage
    • carbonyl group, carbonyl group
    • carboxyl group or carboxylate group
    • Ester linkage, acyl group
    • thioester linkage, acyl group
  6. Structure
    amide
    imine (schiff base)
    disulfide
    phosphate ester
    diphosphate ester
    phosphate diester
    • Functional group or linkage
    • amido group/ acyl group
    • imino group
    • disulfide linkage
    • phosphoryl group
    • phosphoanhydride group
    • phosphodiester linkage
  7. Three major biological polymers.

    The four class of biological molecules is what? Why is it not included here?
    Proteins (polypeptides) from amino acid monomers.

    Polysaccharide(complex carbohydrate) from monosaccharide (simple carb)

    Nucleic acid )polynucleotide from nucleotide

    Lipids, they are not polymers
  8. In order to self replicate, a molecule must have what?

    _____________ of cells promotes efficiency by maintaining high local concentrations of reactants.

    _____ pathways evolved to synthesize molecules and generate energy.

    Evolution occurs as natural selection acts on ______ occurring variations among individuals.
    Complementarity

    Compartmentation

    Metabolic

    randomly
  9. Prokaryotes lack the nucleus organelle and are predominately _____?

    Viruses are not classified as living because they lack the ________ _____ to reproduce outside their host cells; essentially large molecular aggregates
    Unicellular

    metabolic apparatus
  10. Prokaryotes have a rapid reproductive rate and can form ______ _____ allowing them to survive adverse conditions.

    The nucloeoid is condensed form of a single chromosome containing numbers species of what?
    Resistant spores

    Rna and a variety of soluble enzymes and ribosomes which are the site of protein synthesis.
  11. Three shapes of prokaryotes?
    • cocci-spheroidal
    • bacilli-rodlike
    • spirilla-helically coiled
  12. Prokaryotes are bounded by a 70A what consisting of a lipid bilayer containing embedded proteins?

    Cells of most prokaryotic species are surrounded by a rigid 30-250 A thick polysaccharide cell wall that functions mainly to protect the cell from mechanical injury and to prevent it from bursting in media more or less osmotically dilute than its contents.
    Cell membrane

    more
  13. What is the infolding of plasma membrane to form this multilayered structure and is thought to serve as the site of dan replication and other specialized enzymatic reactions.
    mesosomes
  14. _____________ can synthesize all their cellular constituents from simple molecular such as h20, c02, nh3, and h2s.

    ____________ obtain their energy through the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as nh3, h2s, or even fe2+.

    obtain their energy through the oxidation of organic compounds and hence are ultimately dependent on autotrophs for these substances
    Autotrophs

    Chemolithotrophs

    Heterotrophs
  15. Heterotrophs obtain energy through oxidation of organic compounds and heck are ultimately dependent on autotrophs for these substances.
    Obligae aerobes
    Obligate anarobes
    Anaerobes
    facultative anaerobes
    • Utilize o2
    • Poisoned by presence of O2.
    • employ oxidizing agents such as sulfate or nitrate.
    • grow either in presence or absence of O2.
  16. Eukaryotes are classified into three kingdoms?

    Prokaryotes have two divisions?
    Fungi, plantae, and animalia

    Cyanobacteria and bacteria.

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