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Explain the generation of ATP.
- ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP
- ADP+ energy+ phosphate> ATP
Substrate level phosophorylation is the transfer of a high energy PO4- to ADP
Energy released from ___ to __ is used to __ by __.
- the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound
- another (reduction)
- generate ATP
aerobic: the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)
anaerobic: the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2. Yields less energy than aerobic respiration because only part of the Krebs cycle operations under anaerobic conditions. Absolute vs. Facultative
Bacteria can undergo __.
Not enough or not at all do they have __. __ is bad for them. But, they are capable of doing it.
aerobic and anaerobic respiration
protein rich metabolism
What is a big difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
- anaerobic always yields a lot less.
- Can run parts of the Krebs cycle in anaerobic respiration, but does not run the ETC
ambient air concentration of O2 or higher is toxic
undergo anaerobic respiration but don't care if O2 is present, as long as it is present in small amounts
the breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy: glycolysis, krebs cycle, and ETC
By metabolizing glucose, they yield 36-38 ATP molecules
prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in terms of their process
final product of glycolysis is two pyruvate molecules, whcih will be coverted to acetyl CoA and be used for the Krebs Cycle
every organism that respires starts out with glycolysis
net gain: 2 pyruvates, 2 ATP (originally four but it uses two), and 2 NADH
net gain of the Krebs Cycle
- generates GTP, 2 FADH2, and 8 NADH
- 6 CO2 (and 2 ATP)
Locations of the steps.
glycolysis and the CAC occur in the cytoplasm
ETC takes place in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane
What is the energy gain of NADH and FADH2
- NADH: results in 3 H+, which are pumped back
- FADH2: associated with the cytochrome B (1.5)
What are the 3 complexes associated with the ETC?
1) NADH dehydrogenase: hydrolysis to NAD+ and a proton being pumped
2) Cytochrome B-C1 with FADH--> H+ and FA
3) Cytochrome oxidase= another complex that releases 2 Hydrogens
- oxidation of moelcuels liberates electrons for an ETC
- ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation
What is the location of each pathway in euk and prk?
glycolysis: cytoplasm, cytoplasm
intermediate step: cytoplasm, cytoplasm
krebs cycle: mitochondrial matrix, cytoplasm
ETC: mitochondrial inner membrane, plasma membrane
What is the big difference between pro and euk?
- the location
- the reactions and pKa are all the same
Energy produced from complete oxidation of 1 glucose using aerobic respiration
ATP, NADH, FADH
- Glycolysis: 2,2,0
- Intermediate: 0,2
- Krebs: 2 GTP, 6, 2
- Total: 4, 10, 2
Alternatives to Glycolysis
pentose phosphate pathway:
Pentose phosphate pathway:
- Uses pentoses and NADPH
- Operates with glycolysis
uses 5-carbon sugars and turns them into ribose phosphate and ribulose phosphate to get to the pyruvic acid
- bacterially defined
- - produces NADPH and ATP
- - does not involve glycolysis
- - Pseudomonas, E. faecalis, E. coli
- (primary gram negative)
Explain more of the Entmer-Doudoroff pathway
- 6 carbon sugars
- one atp per glucose--> 2 atp
- production of pyruvate from glucose
- only about 15 bacterial genera/ species use this
- Electron acceptor and its products
NO3- --> NO2-, N2 + H2O
SO4- --> H2S + H2O
CO32- --> CH4 + H2O
In anaerobic respiration, everything but __ is the __.
Every bacteria taht can undergo these processes are __. They're all __.
releases energy from oxidation of organic molecuels
does not require oxygen
does not use the Krebs cycle or the ETC
uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor
many species have their own
4 and 5 cycles
alway less than 38 ATP produced
could be 8 or 10
produces ethyl alcohol and CO2
Lactic acid fermentation
produces lactic acid
- homolactic: produces lactic acid only
- heterolactic: produces lactic acid and other compounds
most bacteria undergo heterolactic acid fermentation; some water, some CO2
classic glycerol formation
skips glycolysis completely
Breakdown of proteins yields somewhere below __.
Anaerobic cycle gives __ ATPs.
protein ----(extracellular proteases)--> amino acids
-------(deamination, decarboxylation, dehydrogenation, desulfurization)----> organic acid----> krebs cycle
bacteria that break down organic minerals in the environment
breaking up waste
classic saprophyte qualities
bacteria are the only species to do this: many are archaea, with exception of one thing, they are not known to pathogens
- use oxygen as the final electron acceptor
- use inorganic compounds as a donor
- oxidize large amounts of nitrogen, sulfur, and iron containing compounds
important for cycling nitrogen and sulfur between air, water, and soil
waste products: methane, water, O2, acetate
- use sunlight to drive ATP production
- oxygenic: uses water as the electron donor
- anoxygenic: use H2 and H2S as the electron donor; no O2 produced as a water gas; do not produce oxygen or water as a waste gas
Mg core= important for electron cycling through the molecule