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what is sociology?
- study of society (institutions)
- institutions= education, health care, family
what is the most powerful institution? why?
- affects growth/ development of children
The common theme with family is socialization. what is socialization? (4)
- can be communication between people
- pattern of how we present or interact
who are the main targets of socialization? what are the forces of socialization towards children?
- children main targets
- ethical moral values taught by family first
- then family friends
- then other children, school
- then media, peers
who are the next targets for socialization after children?
compare formalized learning vs. experiential learning.
- formalized learning: classroom environment
- experiential learning: learning by watching & learning
- what children most accustomed too
- socialization occurs here
the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture
a person's fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling and acting
what are the agents of socialization in order?
- family: first social setting; learn norm and values
- peer group (friends)
- mass media
what is the most important socialization agent? why? (4)
- because loving family produces happy, well-adjusted child
- parental attention very important: bonding & encouragement
- household environment: stimulates development
How do parents consciously and unconsciously convey gender expectations? what message does this deliver?
- convey gender expectation by the way they handle their children
- female word: passive
- male world: action
Describe an example of how parents consciously ad unconsciously convey gender roles?
- choice of toys: parents expectation is tied to toys
- influences choice of games and/or playtime
Summarize the Study by Idle (1993).
- studied parents interaction with children playing with toys; masculine, feminine and neutral toys
- finding= less time spent on female toys b/c boring, not interactive
- why would a mom want to play kitchen when she has to cook for the whole family 3 times a day anyway
What was the study by Pomerleau (1990)?
- study compared male and female rooms
- Male toys: more categories (educational, sports, animals, vehicles)
- Female toys: less varied (dolls, kitchen, household items)
how can girl toys (such as Barbie) have an impact on girls?
- unreal image= slim, large breasts
- impact: discontent with ones self image
some toys link love and romance to what 3 things?
- married intercourse
- reinforces the maternal mandate
- procreation (sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring)
how does boy toys (action figures) have an impact on boys?
- super-masculine image: crime fighters; soldiers with accessories (bombs, guns etc.)
- some masculine toys lack empathy, sensitivity, emotion etc.
What are the outcomes from the impact of gender socialization?
- toys convey different messages
- World of boys: aggressive, fast, activity public, competition
- World of girls: passive, emotional, activity indoors, affective, cooperative
How do boys distinguish and divide the public and private sphere? Use examples. (3)
- 1. Masculinity "warrior" is driven underground and expressed in a socially acceptable form or sport ex. usage of pram (stroller) into surrogate cars
- 2. boys give up the warrior image in public
- 3. double message can confuse interaction and gender identity formation and subjectivity
what effect does mass media have on socialization? (2)
- it educates, entertains, portray role models/ frames or reference (actors + actresses)
- present guideline for behaviour and identity
Describe Cooley's Looking Glass self (1864-1929).
- focus= how the social environment influences the development of self
- a process of interaction which involves: seeing the self as others see us
- we internalize this reflection which influences how we view ourselves (how we feel about ourselves reflects how others feel about us)
- if reflection positive, we will continue to behave in the current behaviour
how do children become functioning members of society? (3)
- 1. direct teaching: child's observation (social and physical world); testing and comparison
- 2. Parental socialization: focused; unconscious (role models)
- 3. Economic circumstances: family structure; philosophical ideas (reflect individual and society's view of human nature)
How is media a propaganda system? (3)
- images are portrayed as being natural
- advertising sells values, concepts, and normalcy (beauty, parenthood, relations)
- it tells us who we should be
Compare ads from 1900, World War 1 and 1920's, and today?
- 1900: ad's were informal-appealed to logic and judgement. ex. take vitamins, feel better
- World War 1 and the 1920's: ads shifted from text to emotional and image centered modes
- Today: less about products and more about the emotional and social life of people buying the products (ads highlight our imperfections and make solutions for it)
what is the "production of discontent" in advertising?
to promote anxiety, discomfort, and inadequacy about people and promote product as a solution to the problem
Define family as a social group. (2)
- collection of persons who recognize one another as family members and within a bonded network
- Related by blood, adoption, marriage/ common law
Define family as a social system.
- interdependent components with differentiations by gender, ethnicity, class, age size etc.
- it has social and cultural meanings and constructions
Define family as a social institution.
family meets broad societal needs that center on intimate relations, reproduction, and socialization
how does society effect family?
society influences our perception on family
how is the family dynamic?
family involves process and change
Compare love at first sight between male (3) and females(4).
- Male: rationalized, earlier, suffer longer to get over relationship
- Female: less idealistic, practical about the power of love, slower-finer distinctions, intense emotions-feel like they give more
what does early socialization teach girls and boys?
- girls: to be attentive to feelings (interpersonal relations)
- boys: to be more assertive, unemotional when angry
Describe socialization. (4)
- a process
- set of beliefs, values, and practice that are learned, often in childhood and passed on from one generation to the next
- the way that society collectively teaches young member or new members a value set
- a value set is a way of interpreting social relations and interactions
what sort of socialization message are television programs conveying? (2)
- characters played by women tend to be younger and less mature than males therefore less authorative
- very little elderly women on TV, message: it's terrible to be an old women
What are the 5 consequences and development of self? (concept of socialization, self esteem)
- 1.socialized to being dissatisfied with ourselves generates self-criticism
- 2.men and women mutilate bodies to fit images that are not real
- 3.False images uni-dimensional portrayed of men and women effects how men and women feel about themselves and each other
- 4.face-isms and bodi-isms
- 5.stress differences
Elaborate how we are socialized to being dissatisfied with ourselves generates self-criticism. (3)
- media works with self vulnerability
- offers a world of consumer goods as a solution
- distorted images can influence... disorders
what effect does it have in society when men and women mutilate their bodies to fit images that are not real?
breast enlargement, cosmetic surgery, hair dye etc. produces a normality
what is face-isms and bodi-isms?
- face-isms: faces of men shown more often
- bodi-isms: shown more of women
- devalues feminine traits: compassion, sensitivity, emotion
Stress differences reflect _________________. give an example. what is the message?
- anti-body orientation
- menstrual flow is an avoided taboo
- symbolic alignment "sanitary" message: women during menstruation are unsanitary and unclean
what do hygienic products suggest about women? What is the message?
- women have more and unique odor problems
- women cannot be feminine on their own : need product to protect her femininity
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