Cells with similar characteristics of form and function are grouped together to form a ____.
A tissue is a collection of similarly specialized cells that will then form into ____.
tissue types are categorized according to four basic histological types.
It is during prenatal development that embryonic cell layers differentiate into the various basic embryological tissue types:
the ____ is the time it takes for the newly divided cells to be completely replaced throughout the tissue.
___ is the tissue type that covers and lives both the external and internal body surfaces, including vessels and small cavities.
epithelium serves to..
match embryonic cell layers
1. skin and oral mucosa
2. respiratory and digestive origin
3. urinary tract
epithelium deeper germinal cells are capable of reproduction by __.
epithelial cells are tightly joined to one another by intercellular junctions in the form of ____, except in the more superficial layer.
the ____ is located between most epithelium and deeper connective tissue, such as skin and oral mucosa, and is produced by both the epthelium and the adjoining connective tissue.
epithelium is ___ having no blood supply.
epithelium can be classified into two main categories.
___ consists of a single layer of epithelial cells.
epithelial cells according to cellular shape
___ consists of flattened platelike epithelial cells, or squams, lining blood and lymphatic vessels, heart and serous cavities, as well as interfaces in the lungs and kidneys.
simple squamous epithelium
the special term ___ is used to refer to the simple squamous e. lining of these vessels and serous cavitites.
___ consists of cube- shaped cells that lne the ducts of various glands, such as certain ducts of the salivary glands.
simple cuboidal epithelium
___ consists of rectangular or tall cells, such as in the lining of other salivary gland ducts, as well as the IEE, whose cells become enamel forming ameloblasts.
simple columnar epithelium
what type of epithelium falsely appears as multiple cell layers. all cells line up to contact inner basement membrane, but not all reach the outer surface of the tissue.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
lines the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
cilia or nonciliated
___ consists of two or more layers of cells, with only the deepest layer lining up to contact the basement membrane.
Most epithelium in the body is ___ which includes the superficial layer of the skin and oral mucosa.
stratified squamous epithelium
interdigitation of the outer epithelium with the deeper connective tissue, having a basement membrane between them, appear as ____.
stratified squamous epithelum can be keratinized or nonkeratinized.
__ is a tough, fibrous, opaque, waterproof protein that is impervious to pathogenic invasion and resistant to friction.
keritinized stratified squamous epithelium is ____.
thicker layers of keratin are found where
palms of hands
bottom of feet
densely packed hard keratin is found
___ is the time needed for a cell to divide and pass through the entire thickness of tissue.
Put in order:
1. clot forms
2. granulation tissue forms and migrating epithelial cells form a new surface layer
3. small injury involving epithelial and connective tissue
4. tissue remodeling forms scar tissue
___ is a thin, acellular structure always located between any form of epithelium and its underlying connective tissue.
the basement membrane consists of two layers:
the most superficial layer of the basement membrane is the ____ and is produced by the epithelium.
basal lamina consists of two sublayers:
lamina lucida - clear layer closer to the epithelium
lamina densa - dense layer that is closer to the connective tissue
the deeper layer of the basement membrane is usually the ___.
the reticular lamina consists of what two types of fibers?
produced and secreted by the underlying connective tissue
what type of tissue is derived form the somites during prenatal development?
(most abundant type of basic tissue in the body)
connective tissue is involved in...
most connective tissue is renewable because its cells are capable of ___, and because most of its cells can even produce their own matrix of intercellular substances and fibers.
in most cases connective tissue is ___ having its own blood supply.
the most common cell in all types of connective tissue is the ____
fibroblasts are flat, elongated cells with cytoplasmic processes at each end.
fibroblasts are considered ___ in connective tissue, because they do not leave the tissue to enter the blood.
young fibroblasts that are actively engaged in the production of fibers and intercellular substances appear to have large amounts of.. 3
other cells found in connective tissue include migrated ___ form the blood supply.
different types of protein fibers are found in various types of connective tissue.
___ are the main connective tissue fiber found in the body.
tissue containing a large amount of collagen fibers is considered a ____
collagenous connective tissue
the most common type of collagen protein is ___, which is found in the skin dermis, lamina propria, bone, dentitions, tendons, and virtually all other types of connective tissue.
type 1 collagen
cells responsible for the synthesis of type 1 include ___ and ___, which produce bone, as well as ____ , which produce dentin.
___ are another type of fiber, composed of microfilaments embedded in the protein elastin, which results in a very elastic type of tissue.
what regions of the oral cavity contain elastic fibers
soft palate (in lamina propria)
___ fibers are composed of the protein reticulin and are very fine, hairlike fibers that branch, forming a network in the tissue that contain them.
reticular connective tissue predominates in the ____ and spleen.
soft tissue can be classified as
both loose and dense types of connective tissue are found together in two layers as _____.
connective tissue proper
the connective tissue proper in the skin is the ___ and is found deep to the epidermis
even deeper to the dermis is the ___ which is composed of loose connective tissue and adipose connective tissue, a specialized connective tissue, glandular tissue. large blood vessels, and nerves.
in oral mucosa the connective tissue proper is considered the ___ and the deeper connective tissue is the ____ similar to the hypodermis
the superficial layer of both the sermis of the skin and lamina propria of the oral mucosa is composed of _____
loose connective tissue
in the dermis of lamina propria, this layer of loose connective tissue is also considered the ____
the papillary layer has ____ which are interdigitations of loose connective tissue with the epithelium. rete ridges
connective tissue papillae
the ____ serves as protective padding for the deeper structures of the body.
loose connective tissue
deep to the loose connective tissue is the ____
dense connective tissue
what type of tissue is tightly packed, with a regular arrangement, and it also consists mainly of protein fivers, which give this tissue its strength.
dense connective tissue
the dense connective tissue is also considered the ___
dense layer or reticular layer
tendons, aponeuroses, and ligament are a type of ____
dense connective tissue
immature connective tissue is consided ___ and ha few fibers and an increased amount of blood vessels.
appears as a redder, soft tissue that bleeds easily
connective tissue turnover and repair:
___ migrate to produce an immature connective tissue deep to the clot and newly forming epithelial surface.
specialized connective tissue includes
___ is a fatty tissue that is found beneath the skin, around the organs and various joints, and in regions of the oral cavity.
adipose connective tissue
cells are tightly packed together with little or no matrix
adipose connective tissue
___ has a large number of elastic fibers in its matrix, which combine strength with elasticity, such as in the tissue of the vocal cords
elastic connective tissue
___is a delicate network of interwoven reticular fibers forming a supportive framework for blood vessels and internal organs.
reticular connective tissue
___ is a firm, nonmineralized connective tissue that serves as a skeletal tissue in the body.
cartilage serves as
model or template in which certain bones of body develop
the connective tissue surrounding most cartilage is the ___ a fibrous connective tissue sheath containing blood vessels
cartilage is composed of
two types of cells found in cartilage are the immature ____ which produce cartilage matrix, and ____ which are mature that maintain the cartilage matrix.
only a small space surrounds the chondrocyte within the cartilage matrix, the ____
three types of cartilage
___ is the most common type of cartilage found in the body and contains only collagen fibers as part of its matrix.
hyaline cartilage is found
___ is similar to hyaline, except that it has numerous elastic fibers in its matrix
elastic cartilage is found
parts of the larynx
___ is never found alone and merges gradually with its neiboring hyaline cartilage, such as in the outer part of the TMJ
cartilage can develop or grow in 2 different ways
___ is growth form deep within the tissue by the mitosis of each chondrocyte thus producing larger numbers of daughter cells
___ is layered growth on the outside of the tissue form an outer layer of chondroblasts within perichondrium.
___ is a rigid connective tissue that constitutes most of the mature skeleton
bone serves as
aids in movement
manufactures blood cells
storehouse for calcium and other minerals
bones are moved by___
bone has also undergone the most developmental ___ of all the connective tissue
the outer part of bone is covered by
perosteum is a doubled layered dense connective tissue sheath. the outer layer contains a single layer of cells that give rise to bone forming cells ___
deep to the periosteum is a dense layer of ___
deep to the compact bone is a spongy bone or ___
lining the medullary cavity of bone on the inside of the layers of compact bone and cancellous bone is the ____
on the innner most part of the bone in the medullary cavity is the _____
b cells mature in and stem cells of the blood are located
bone consists of mainly calcium hydroxyapatite an inorganic substance that __
gives bone its hardness
bone matrix is initially formed as ___ which later undergoes mineralization
within fully mineralized bone are ___ which are entrapped mature osteoblasts.
the cytoplasmic processes of the osteocyte radiate outward in all directions in the bone and are located in tubular canals of matrix or___
bone matrix in compact bone is formed into closely apposed sheets or___
this highly organized arrangement of concentric lamellae in compact bone is the _____
in the haversian system these lamellae form concentric layers of matrix into cylinders or ___
the ____ is a central vascular canal within the each osteon surrounded by the lamellae
located on the outer part of the haversian system in compact bone are ____ or similar nutrient canals that contain the same vascular and nerve components as the haversian canals being also lined with endosteum
cancellous bone has its bone matrix formed into ___ or joined matrix pieces forming a lattice.
another word for bone development
ossification has two methods of development.
___ is formation of osteoid between two dense connective tissue sheets, which then eventually replaces the outer connective tissue.
___ is the formation of the osteoid within a hyaline cartilage model that subsequently becomes mineralized and dies.
the first bone to be produced by either method of ossification is considered woven bone, or ___
immature bone is a temporary tissue that is replaced by a more mature ___
the cell that causes resorption of bone is the __-
the osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell located on the surface of secondary bone in a large, shallow pit created by this resorption ____
___ occurs in a specific area of a bone as a result of infection altered mechanical stress or pressure on the bone so that it adapts by remodeling
__ occurs over the entire skeleton in varying amounts because of endocrine activity to increase blood levels of calcium and phosphate needed by the body.
the ___ or resting lines, appear as smooth lines between the layers of bone because of osteoblasts having rested, formed bone, and then rested again after appositional growth
__ appear as scalloped lines between the layers of bone. where bone resorption has first taken place.
___ is a fluid connective tissue that serves as a transport medium for cellular nutrients, such as respiratory gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as metabolites for the entire body.
___ is the fluid substance in the blood vessels that carries the plasma proteins, blood cells, and metabolites.
___ is another fluid product, is distinguished form the plasma form which it is derived due to the removal of clotting proteins.
blood cells and associated derivatives are also called the ____ of the blood.
most blood cells come from a common stem cell in the ___
an RBC is a biconcave disc that contains hemoglobin, which binds and transports O2 and CO2
hematocrit - denser goes to the bottom RBC's
smaller the RBC only fragments of another blood cell
___ function in the clotting mechanism
___ mature in the bone marrow or in various lymphatic organs
white blood cells
WBC's along with platelets, forming the intermediate ___ with the plasma fraction superior to it.
most muscles are derived from
three types of muscle are classified according to structure, function, and intervation
two types of muscle that are considered involuntary muscles
smooth muscles are located 3
lining blood vessels
___ muscle is in the wall of the heart
___ are considered voluntary muscles because they are under voluntary control
skeletal muscles are also called ___ because the muscle cells appear stripped microscopically
put in order muscle
nerve tissue forms the nervous system in the body being derived form the ___ within the embryo
a ___ is the functional cellular component of the nervous system and is composed of three parts:
neural cell body
2 different neural cytoplasmic processes
__ conducts impulses away from the neuron cell body
___ is a thread like process that functions to receive and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
a___ is a bundle of neural processes outside the central nervous system
a__ is the junction between two neurons
an aggregation of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system is termed
two functional types of nerves
an ___ nerve carries information impulses from the periphery of the body to the brain
__ nerve carries information away from the brain to the body
nervous system has 2 main division:
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
the CNS consists of
the ans has two divisions
the ___ system is involved in fight of flight responces
the ___ system is involved in rest or digest responses