DH embryology and histology CH.8

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DH embryology and histology CH.8
2014-10-20 22:02:07
DH embryology histology
DH embryology and histology
self quiz chapter 8
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  1. Cells with similar characteristics of form and function are grouped together to form a ____.
  2. A tissue is a collection of similarly specialized cells that will then form into ____.
  3. tissue types are categorized according to four basic histological types.
    • epithelium
    • connective tissue
    • muscle
    • nerve
  4. It is during prenatal development that embryonic cell layers differentiate into the various basic embryological tissue types:
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
    • endoderm
  5. the ____ is the time it takes for the newly divided cells to be completely replaced throughout the tissue.
    turnover time
  6. ___ is the tissue type that covers and lives both the external and internal body surfaces, including vessels and small cavities.
  7. epithelium serves to..
    • protect
    • tissue absorption 
    • secretin
    • sensory
  8. match embryonic cell layers
    1. skin and oral mucosa
    2. respiratory and digestive origin
    3. urinary tract
    • 1. ectoderm
    • 2. endoderm
    • 3. mesoderm
  9. epithelium deeper germinal cells are capable of reproduction by __.
  10. epithelial cells are tightly joined to one another by intercellular junctions in the form of ____, except in the more superficial layer.
  11. the ____ is located between most epithelium and deeper connective tissue, such as skin and oral mucosa, and is produced by both the epthelium and the adjoining connective tissue.
    basement membrane
  12. epithelium is ___ having no blood supply.
  13. epithelium can be classified into two main categories.
    • simple
    • stratified
  14. ___ consists of a single layer of epithelial cells.
    simple epithelium
  15. epithelial cells according to cellular shape
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
  16. ___ consists of flattened platelike epithelial cells, or squams, lining blood and lymphatic vessels, heart and serous cavities, as well as interfaces in the lungs and kidneys.
    simple squamous epithelium
  17. the special term ___ is used to refer to the simple squamous e. lining of these vessels and serous cavitites.
  18. ___ consists of cube- shaped cells that lne the ducts of various glands, such as certain ducts of the salivary glands.
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  19. ___ consists of rectangular or tall cells, such as in the lining of other salivary gland ducts, as well as the IEE, whose cells become enamel forming ameloblasts.
    simple columnar epithelium
  20. what type of epithelium falsely appears as multiple cell layers. all cells line up to contact inner basement membrane, but not all reach the outer surface of the tissue.
    • pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • lines the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
    • cilia or nonciliated
  21. ___ consists of two or more layers of cells, with only the deepest layer lining up to contact the basement membrane.
    stratified epithelium
  22. Most epithelium in the body is ___ which includes the superficial layer of the skin and oral mucosa.
    stratified squamous epithelium
  23. interdigitation of the outer epithelium with the deeper connective tissue, having a basement membrane between them, appear as ____.
    rete ridges
  24. stratified squamous epithelum can be keratinized or nonkeratinized.
  25. __ is a tough, fibrous, opaque, waterproof protein that is impervious to pathogenic invasion and resistant to friction.
  26. keritinized stratified squamous epithelium is ____.
  27. thicker layers of keratin are found where
    • palms of hands
    • bottom of feet
    • form calluses
  28. densely packed hard keratin is found
    • hair 
    • nails
  29. ___ is the time needed for a cell to divide and pass through the entire thickness of tissue.
    turnover time
  30. Put in order:
    1. clot forms
    2. granulation tissue forms and migrating epithelial cells form a new surface layer
    3. small injury involving epithelial and connective tissue
    4. tissue remodeling forms scar tissue
    • 3
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  31. ___ is a thin, acellular structure always located between any form of epithelium and its underlying connective tissue.
    basement membrane
  32. the basement membrane consists of two layers:
    • basal lamina 
    • reticular lamina
  33. the most superficial layer of the basement membrane is the ____ and is produced by the epithelium.
    basal lamina
  34. basal lamina consists of two sublayers:
    • lamina lucida - clear layer closer to the epithelium
    • lamina densa - dense layer that is closer to the connective tissue
  35. the deeper layer of the basement membrane is usually the ___.
    reticular lamina
  36. the reticular lamina consists of what two types of fibers?
    • collagen fibers
    • reticular fibers
    • produced and secreted by the underlying connective tissue
  37. what type of tissue is derived form the somites during prenatal development?
    • connective tissue
    • (most abundant type of basic tissue in the body)
  38. connective tissue is involved in...
    • support
    • attachment
    • packing insulation
    • storage
    • transport
    • repair
    • defense
  39. most connective tissue is renewable because its cells are capable of ___, and because most of its cells can even produce their own matrix of intercellular substances  and fibers.
  40. in most cases connective tissue is ___ having its own blood supply.
  41. the most common cell in all types of connective tissue is the ____
  42. fibroblasts are flat, elongated cells with cytoplasmic processes at each end.
  43. fibroblasts are considered ___ in connective tissue, because they do not leave the tissue to enter the blood.
    fixed cells
  44. young fibroblasts that are actively engaged in the production of fibers and intercellular substances appear to have large amounts of.. 3
    • cytoplasm
    • mitochondria
    • rough ER
  45. other cells found in connective tissue include migrated ___ form the blood supply.
  46. different types of protein fibers are found in various types of connective tissue.
    • collagen fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  47. ___ are the main connective tissue fiber found in the body.
    collagen fiber
  48. tissue containing a large amount of collagen fibers is considered a ____
    collagenous connective tissue
  49. the most common type of collagen protein is ___, which is found in the skin dermis, lamina propria, bone, dentitions, tendons, and virtually all other types of connective tissue.
    type 1 collagen
  50. cells responsible for the synthesis of type 1 include ___ and ___, which produce bone, as well as ____ , which produce dentin.
    • fibroblasts
    • osteoblasts
    • odontoblasts
  51. ___ are another type of fiber, composed of microfilaments embedded in the protein elastin, which results in a very elastic type of tissue.
    elastic fibers
  52. what regions of the oral cavity contain elastic fibers
    soft palate (in lamina propria)
  53. ___ fibers are composed of the protein reticulin and are very fine, hairlike fibers that branch, forming a network in the tissue that contain them.
  54. reticular connective tissue predominates in the ____ and spleen.
    lymph nodes
  55. soft tissue can be classified as
    • loose
    • dense
    • specialized
  56. both loose and dense types of connective tissue are found together in two layers as _____.
    connective tissue proper
  57. the connective tissue proper in the skin is the ___ and is found deep to the epidermis
  58. even deeper to the dermis is the ___ which is composed of loose connective tissue and adipose connective tissue, a specialized connective tissue, glandular tissue. large blood vessels, and nerves.
  59. in oral mucosa the connective tissue proper is considered the ___ and the deeper connective tissue is the ____ similar to the hypodermis
    • lamina propria
    • submucosa
  60. the superficial layer of both the sermis of the skin and lamina propria of the oral mucosa is composed of _____
    loose connective tissue
  61. in the dermis of lamina propria, this layer of loose connective tissue is also considered the ____
    papillary layer
  62. the papillary layer has ____ which are interdigitations of loose connective tissue with the epithelium. rete ridges
    connective tissue papillae
  63. the ____ serves as protective padding for the deeper structures of the body.
    loose connective tissue
  64. deep to the loose connective tissue is the ____
    dense connective tissue
  65. what type of tissue is tightly packed, with a regular arrangement, and it also consists mainly of protein fivers, which give this tissue its strength.
    dense connective tissue
  66. the dense connective tissue is also considered the ___
    dense layer or reticular layer
  67. tendons, aponeuroses, and ligament are a type of ____
    dense connective tissue
  68. immature connective tissue is consided ___ and ha few fibers and an increased amount of blood vessels. 
    appears as a redder, soft tissue that bleeds easily
    granulation tissue
  69. connective tissue turnover and repair:
    ___ migrate to produce an immature connective tissue deep to the clot and newly forming epithelial surface.
  70. specialized connective tissue includes
    • adipose
    • elastic
    • reticular
  71. ___ is a fatty tissue that is found beneath the skin, around the organs and various joints, and in regions of the oral cavity.
    adipose connective tissue
  72. cells are tightly packed together with little or no matrix
    adipose connective tissue
  73. ___ has a large number of elastic fibers in its matrix, which combine strength with elasticity, such as in the tissue of the vocal cords
    elastic connective tissue
  74. ___is a delicate network of interwoven reticular fibers forming a supportive framework for blood vessels and internal organs.
    reticular connective tissue
  75. ___ is a firm, nonmineralized connective tissue that serves as a skeletal tissue in the body.
  76. cartilage serves as
    • structural support
    • model or template in which certain bones of body develop
  77. the connective tissue surrounding most cartilage is the ___ a fibrous connective tissue sheath containing blood vessels
  78. cartilage is composed of
    • cells 
    • matrix
  79. two types of cells found in cartilage are the immature ____ which produce cartilage matrix, and ____ which are mature that maintain the cartilage matrix.
    • chondroblasts
    • chondrocytes
  80. only a small space surrounds the chondrocyte within the cartilage matrix, the ____
  81. three types of cartilage
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  82. ___ is the most common type of cartilage found in the body and contains only collagen fibers as part of its matrix.
    hyaline cartilage
  83. hyaline cartilage is found
    mandibular condyle
  84. ___ is similar to hyaline, except that it has numerous elastic fibers in its matrix
    elastic cartilage
  85. elastic cartilage is found
    • external ear
    • auditory tube 
    • epiglottis 
    • parts of the larynx
  86. ___ is never found alone and merges gradually with its neiboring hyaline cartilage, such as in the outer part of the TMJ
  87. cartilage can develop or grow in 2 different ways
    • interstitial growth
    • appositional growth
  88. ___ is growth form deep within the tissue by the mitosis of each chondrocyte thus producing larger numbers of daughter cells
    interstitial growth
  89. ___ is layered growth on the outside of the tissue form an outer layer of chondroblasts within perichondrium.
    appositional growth
  90. ___ is a rigid connective tissue that constitutes most of the mature skeleton
  91. bone serves as
    • protection
    • support
    • attachment mechanism
    • aids in movement
    • manufactures blood cells 
    • storehouse for calcium and other minerals
  92. bones are moved by___
    skeletal muscles
  93. bone has also undergone the most developmental ___ of all the connective tissue
  94. the outer part of bone is covered by
  95. perosteum is a doubled layered dense connective tissue sheath. the outer layer contains a single layer of cells that give rise to bone forming cells ___
  96. deep to the periosteum is a dense layer of ___
    compact bone
  97. deep to the compact bone is a spongy bone or ___
    cancellous bone
  98. lining the medullary cavity of bone on the inside of the layers of compact bone and cancellous bone is the ____
  99. on the innner most part of the bone in the medullary cavity is the _____
    bone marrow
  100. b cells mature in and stem cells of the blood are located
    bone marrow
  101. bone consists of mainly calcium hydroxyapatite an inorganic substance that __
    gives bone its hardness
  102. bone matrix is initially formed as ___ which later undergoes mineralization
  103. within fully mineralized bone are ___ which are entrapped mature osteoblasts.
  104. the cytoplasmic processes of the osteocyte radiate outward in all directions in the bone and are located in tubular canals of matrix or___
  105. bone matrix in compact bone is formed into closely apposed sheets or___
  106. this highly organized arrangement of concentric lamellae in compact bone is the _____
    haversian system
  107. in the haversian system these lamellae form concentric layers of matrix into cylinders or ___
  108. the ____ is a central vascular canal within the each osteon surrounded by the lamellae
    haversian canal
  109. located on the outer part of the haversian system in compact bone are ____ or similar nutrient canals that contain the same vascular and nerve components as the haversian canals being also lined with endosteum
    volkmanns canals
  110. cancellous bone has its bone matrix formed  into ___ or joined matrix pieces forming a lattice.
  111. another word for bone development
  112. ossification has two methods of development.
    • intramembranous 
    • endochondral
  113. ___ is formation of osteoid between two dense connective tissue sheets, which then eventually replaces the outer connective tissue.
    intramembranous ossificaion
  114. ___ is the formation of the osteoid within a hyaline cartilage model that subsequently becomes mineralized and dies.
    endochondral ossification
  115. the first bone to be produced by either method of ossification is considered woven bone, or ___
    immature bone
  116. immature bone is a temporary tissue that is replaced by a more mature ___
    secondary bone
  117. the cell that causes resorption of bone is the __-
  118. the osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell located on the surface of secondary bone in a large, shallow pit created by this resorption ____
    howships lacuna
  119. ___ occurs in a specific area of a bone as a result of infection altered mechanical stress or pressure on the bone so that it adapts by remodeling
    localized resorption
  120. __ occurs over the entire skeleton in varying amounts because of endocrine activity to increase blood levels of calcium and phosphate needed by the body.
    generalized resorption
  121. the ___ or resting lines, appear as smooth lines between the layers of bone because of osteoblasts having rested, formed bone, and then rested again after appositional growth
    arrest lines
  122. __ appear as scalloped lines between the layers of bone. where bone resorption has first taken place.
    reversal lines
  123. ___ is a fluid connective tissue that serves as a transport medium for cellular nutrients, such as respiratory gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as metabolites for the entire body.
  124. ___ is the fluid substance in the blood vessels that carries the plasma proteins, blood cells, and metabolites.
  125. ___ is another fluid product, is distinguished form the plasma form which it is derived due to the removal of clotting proteins.
  126. blood cells and associated derivatives are also called the ____ of the blood.
    formed elements
  127. most blood cells come from a common stem cell in the ___
    bone marrow
  128. an RBC is a biconcave disc that contains hemoglobin, which binds and transports O2 and CO2
  129. hematocrit - denser goes to the bottom RBC's
  130. smaller the RBC only fragments of another blood cell
  131. ___ function in the clotting mechanism
  132. ___ mature in the bone marrow or in various lymphatic organs
    white blood cells
  133. WBC's along with platelets, forming the intermediate ___ with the plasma fraction superior to it.
    buffy coat
  134. most muscles are derived from
  135. three types of muscle are classified according to structure, function, and intervation
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  136. two types of muscle that are considered involuntary muscles
    • cardiac an
    • smooth
  137. smooth muscles are located 3
    • lining blood vessels 
    • organs
    • glands
  138. ___  muscle is in the wall of the heart
  139. ___ are considered voluntary muscles because they are under voluntary control
    skeletal mucle
  140. skeletal muscles are also called ___ because the muscle cells appear stripped microscopically
    striated muscles
  141. put in order muscle
    1 myofilaments
    2 myofibers
    3 myofibrils
    4 fascicles
    • 4
    • 2
    • 3
    • 1
  142. nerve tissue forms the nervous system in the body being derived form the ___ within the embryo
  143. a ___ is the functional cellular component of the nervous system and is composed of three parts:
    • neuron
    • neural cell body 
    • 2 different neural cytoplasmic processes
  144. __ conducts impulses away from the neuron cell body
  145. ___ is a thread like process that functions to receive and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
  146. a___ is a bundle of neural processes outside the central nervous system
  147. a__ is the junction between two neurons
  148. an aggregation of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system is termed
  149. two functional types of nerves
    • afferent
    • efferent
  150. an ___ nerve carries information impulses from the periphery of the body to the brain
  151. __ nerve carries information away from the brain to the body
  152. nervous system has 2 main division:
    • central nervous system 
    • peripheral nervous system
  153. the CNS consists of
    • brain 
    • spinal cord
  154. the ans has two divisions
    • sympathetic
    • parasympathetic
  155. the ___ system is involved in fight of flight responces
  156. the ___ system is involved in rest or digest responses