exam 2 2500

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exam 2 2500
2014-10-19 20:05:21
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  1. is the ability to devote attention to the prosodic and phonetic regularities of speech
    Speech perception ability
  2. This ability develops tremendously in the first year as infants move from detecting larger patterns, such as rhythm, to detecting smaller patterns, such as combinations of specific sounds
    Speech perception ability
  3. Frequency (pitch), duration (length), and the intensity (loudness)
    prosodic characteristics of speech
  4. Infants in learning English hear many more ____-__ stress patterns in bisyllabic words than they hear ____-_____
    strong-weak, weak-strong
  5. By age ___ months infants learning English prefer to listen to words containing strong-weak stress patterns
  6. phonemes (speech sounds), and combinations of phonemes
    phonetic details of speech
  7. allows listeners to distinguish between phonemes so that they can quickly and efficiently process incoming speech by ignoring those variations that are nonessential in their language
    categorical perception
  8. The process by which infants start to focus more on perceptual differences that are relevant to them is called ___ and is not limited to speech sounds (such as face perception and musical rhythm)
    perceptual narrowing
  9. As infants hear their native language more and more they also develop the ability to recognize permissible combinations of phonemes in their language, this is known as
    phonotactic regularities
  10. Infants ability to differentiate between and impermissible sound sequences in their native language is present by about ___ months
  11. One mechanism humans use to distinguish between sounds in different categories is __ __ __, which is the interval between the release of a stop consonant and the onset of vocal cord vibrations (/b/ and /p/)
    voice onset time
  12. By __ months, infants are able to distinguish between purposeful and accidental actions
  13. This is one of the earliest prelinguistic abilities to develop, and perhaps one of the best indicators of later cognitive and linguistic outcomes
    category formation
  14. The uppermost level in a category hierarchy. Describe the most general concept in a particular category and include words such as food, furniture, and clothing. Kids cannot successfully categorize words at this level until preschool age
  15. Lowest level in the category hierarchy. Describes specific concepts in a category. For example garbanzo, pinto, and kidney are subordinate terms for different types of beans
  16. Lie in the center of the category hierarchy. Describe general concepts in a category, including words such as apple, chair, and shirt.
  17. In addition to using the hierarchical structure of categories to learn new concepts and words, infants use two basic categories at each level of the hierarchy:
    perceptual categories and conceptual categories
  18. -Infants form perceptual categories on the basis of similar appearing features including color, shape, texture, size and so forth
    -Infants use this by 3 months
    perceptual categories
  19. -Conceptual categorization requires infants to know what something is, forming categories based on what objects do rather than what they look like.
    -When children have perceptual categories, they can use these categories to make inductive generalizations about new objects without relying on perceptual similarity (ex: real penguin vs toy penguin)
    conceptual categories
  20. Babes follow an observable and sequential pattern of vocalizations:
    -Include sounds of discomfort, distress, and vegetative sounds such as burping, coughing, and sneezing. Kids do not have control over reflexive sounds. Parents are more sensitive to reflexive sounds
    Reflexive (0-2 Months)
  21. Babes follow an observable and sequential pattern of vocalizations:
    -Infants begin to produce cooing and gooing sounds. Mostly vowel like sounds. Infants might also combine vowel sounds with consonant sounds, and even nasalized sounds. Consonant sounds produced at the back of the oral cavity are easiest to produce
    Control of Phonation (1-4) months
  22. Babes follow an observable and sequential pattern of vocalizations:

    -Infants gain more control over the articulators and begin to produce isolated vowel sounds (those that would be transcribed as adult vowels) as well as vowel glides. Infants also experiment with loudness and pitch. In this phase infants may also use marginal babbling, an early type of babbling containing consonant-like and vowel-like sounds with prolonged transitions between the consonant and vowel sounds
    Expansion (3-8 months)
  23. Babes follow an observable and sequential pattern of vocalizations:

    -In this stage infants begin to produce single consonant-vowel syllables. Canonical Babbling also emerges in this stage (producing more than two consonant vowel syllables in a sequence). Deaf kids also babble with their hands
    Basic canonical syllables (5-10 months)
  24. ___ babbling consists of repeating CV pairs like Ma Ma Ma
  25. ____ babbling consists of non repeating CV combinations such as da ma goo ga
  26. ____ vocalizations are CV combos followed by an isolated consonant, which consist of two CV syllables separated by an audible gap
  27. Babes follow an observable and sequential pattern of vocalizations:

    Infants begin to produce diphthongs, other complex syllable forms and multisyllabic strings with and without varied stress intonation patterns
    Advance forms (9-18 months)
  28. ____ is a special type of babbling that contains at least two syllables and at least two different consonants and vowels, as well as varied intonation patterns in the absence of recognizable words
  29. _____ features of IDS includes a higher overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, and slower tempos
  30. _____ characteristics of IDS include a shorter mean length of utterance (the number of morphemes in an utterance), fewer subordinate clauses, and more content and fewer function words
  31. ______ features of IDS include more repetition and more questions than those used in ADS
  32. -It highlights content words (nouns and verbs) with exaggerated pitch
    -___ exaggerates pauses
    Infant directs speech IDS
  33. Phases of Joint Reference and Attention Development:

    -Attendance to social partners
    -Birth to about 6 months
    -Infants develop patterns of attending to social partners
    -Learn how to maintain attention and are especially interested in looking at peoples faces
    -In this phase, caregiver responsiveness is important
    phase 1
  34. Phases of Joint Reference and Attention Development:

    -Transition to language
    -1 years and beyond
    -Children begin to incorporate language into their communicative interactions with other people
    -Infants shift to this phase to engage socially with other individuals and use language to represent events and objects within these interactions
    -Active involvement of the parents are still muy importante
    phase 3
  35. 7 bullshits of caregiver responsiveness
    • 1-waiting and listening
    • 2-following the child's lead
    • 3- joining in and playing
    • 4-being face to face
    • 5-using a variety of questions and labels
    • 6-encouraging turn taking
    • 7-Expanding and Extending
  36. Between ages 1 and 3 is considered