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- Origin= Lower margin of mandible and mastoid process of temporal bone
- Insertion= By a connective tissue loop to hyoid bone.
- Action= Open mouth and depresses mandible; digestric muscles elevate hyoid bone and steady it during swallowing and speech.
- origin= Styoloid process of temporal bone
- Insertion= Hyoid bone.
- Action= Elevates and retracts hyoid (elongates floor of mouth during swallowing.
- Origin= Manubrium and medial end of clavicle.
- insertion= lower margin of hyoid bone
- Action= Depresses larynx and hyoid bone if mandible is fixed.
- Origin= Thyroid cartilage.
- Insertion= hyoid bone.
- Action= Depresses hyoid bone or elevates larynx if hyoid is fixed.
Splenius capitis and cervicis. (skip)
- Origin= ligamentun nuchae. Spinous process of vertebrae C7-T6.
- Insertion= Mastoid process of temporal bone and occipital bone (capitis). Transverse processes of C2-C4 vertebrae (cervicis).
- Action= Extend the head. When splenius are activated head is rotated and bent laterally toward same side.
Spinalis thoracis and cervicis (skip)
- Origin= Spines of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
- Insertion= Spines of upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae.
- Action= Extends vertebral column.
Semispinalis thoracis, cervicis and capitis
- Origin= Transverse processes of C7- T12.
- Insertion= Occipital bone (Capitis)
- Insertion= Spinous processes of cervical (cervicis).
- Insertion= Thoracic vertebra T1-T4 (thoracis).
- Action= Extends vertebral column and head and rotates the opposite side; acts synergistically with sternocleidomastoid of opposite side.