Mycoplasmas Gram positive cocci Endospore forming Gram positive rods and cocci

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Mycoplasmas Gram positive cocci Endospore forming Gram positive rods and cocci
2014-11-04 12:13:35
Test Two
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  1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  2. Mycoplasma homminis
  3. Ureaplasma urealyticum
  4. Mycoplasma
    • wall-less; no cell wall; shape depends on environmental conditions
    • have sterols in their plasma membrane
    • bridge between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? --> possibly
    • causes pneumonia; aerosolized
    • M. homminis: UTI (found in low numbers on the skin); UTI does not lead to infection of ascending; usually in the lower tract)
  5. Stapylococcus aureus
    food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome

    • Species has different subtypes
    • can be found in low numbers
    • can secrete toxins
    • some do nothing
    • can cause food poisoning (has the most cross bridging and sulfur-containing side chains)
    • can't boil the toxin away (gets down tract and eventually washes out via diarrhea)
  6. S. aureus cont.

    • toxin that is the result of a different lifestyle= high need for magnesium
    • become predominant in environment
    • common among women who use feminie products for extended pds of time (aka: tampons)--> perfect environment for them

    • person goes into hypovolemic shock
    • not enough O2 to CNS--> no focal signs

    hypoxia: renal, liver, etc. failure
  7. S. aureus cont. 

    scalded skin syndrome
    looks like they've been burned (suffer classic visual symptoms of a burn); cause dishesiveness between skin layers

    people can get secondary infections
  8. S. epidermitis
    all over you; normally, no disease caused in healthy individual

    • if you have a prosthetic infection and UTI, it may appear
    • most prominent in IV users--> endocarditis (infection and inflammation of the heart)

    bacteria glutanate on the valves, which can't open and close regularly due to rigidity of valves--> clots in heart--> large clot in heart--> DEAD
  9. S. hominus
    • skin commensas
    • alcohol consumption--> immune system becomes compromised
  10. S. pyogenes
    fevers, rheumatic fever, inflammation of kidneys, glomerulonephritis scarlet fever

    high cyclical fevers--> go up, then 12 a degree off--> normal and back up, etc. 

    • scarlet fever results in endocarditis
    • --> little bacteria recruit fibrin molecule, which gets more thin RBC, WBC, more bacteria, etc. for clot formation

    scarlet fever seen in condensed populations
  11. E. fascalis
    • common GI tract inhabitant
    • fecal oral spread
    • number one cause of appendicitis, especially in people who bite their nails
  12. Bacillus anthracis
    biggest and baddest (blue black lesion on hands of people dealing with cattle)--> spread scratching and contact with other body parts

    shows up one week; and, after infection. Keep clean--> immune system gets rid of it. Skin part is manageable

    • rest of disease: endospore in respiratory tract--> resp part of disease--> dose dependent; resp part is rare and requires a large amount
    • if you have it, you et pneumonia
    • cytotoxins are released
    • anthrax reinvented itself 2-3 years ago; large areas of necrosis all over due to injectional anthrax
  13. B. subtillis
    nohing more than pimples
  14. Clostridium:
    major problems; spore derived
  15. C. perfringens
    • inoculated with spores (cut that spores get in) 
    • rapid zone of necrosis forms
    • cytotoxins kill everything around it
  16. C. tetani
    tetanus of head and neck; muscles cant react; acetylcholine bound in neurons, people become rigid

    musculature also can't relax; in respiratory muscles--> rigid--> death

    • botulism: lethal; acetylcholine can't go to synaptic cleft; floppy flaccid respiratory muscles and other muscles
    • individual undergoes hypoxia
  17. C. dificile
    serious damage to colon and small intestine

    • internalize spores via fecal oral route
    • populous in countries that don't mandate gloves when handling patients
  18. Clostridium botulinum