exam2 2500

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brianklein
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286314
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exam2 2500
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2014-10-19 21:03:20
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  1. During __ children begin to consciously attempt to create matches between objects and actions in the world and the language that describes them
    toddlerhood
  2. A baby’s first word marks the beginning of a transition from ____ to ____ communication
    preverbal, verbal
  3. Babies produce their first words at age __
    12
  4. babes create ____ entries that contain the word, the sound of the word, the meaning of the word, and its part of speech
    lexical entries
  5. A ____ word is a word that a child uses consistently and extends beyond the original context
    true word
  6. describe the idiosyncratic wordlife productions that children use consistently and meaningfully but that do not approximate adult forms. They sound consistent but are used to refer to many single referents. By using them children learn the value of adopting a stable pronunciation for communicating a particular situation
    Phonetically consistent forms
  7. -The baby must produce the word on a clear purpose
    -A true word must have recognizable pronunciation similar to the adult form of the word
    -A troo word is a word that a child uses consistently and extends beyond the original context
    criteria for troo words
  8. Over their second year ____ continue to rely on others gestures as an important source of information as they learn language, although there seems to be a developmental shift during this time.
    toddlers
  9. toddlers come to rely less on gestures and more on ___ when making inferences about how to categorize or label new objects.
    words
  10. Children who are beginning to transition from the prelinguistic stage to the one-word stage use _____ gestures, such as holding a fist to the ear to indicate telephone, or waving the hand to indicate bye bye
    referential
  11. ____ gestures indicate a precise referent and has stable meaning across different contexts
    Referential
  12. ____ gestures are gestures whose meanings change depending on the context.
    deidic
  13. As children transition from one word stage to the two word stage they begin to exhibit ___ ___ combinations. For example: pointing to a chair while saying mommy to request their mom to sit in a chair
    gesture word
  14. When children begin to use two-word utterances, they stop combining two ____ gestures
    referential
  15. ___ __ ____ describes the age by which 50% of children can produce a given sound in multiple positions in words in an adult way
    customary age of production
  16. ___ __ __describes the age by which most children produce a sound in an adult like manner
    Age of mastery
  17. Children who appear to make errors are in fact using systematic, rule governed processes as they speak and are not simply making haphazard sound substitutions this is called
    phonological process
  18. Researchers believe that young children use phonological processes in an effort to their inventory of phonetic elements and strings
    simplify
  19. changes are simply changes to syllables in words. A common syllable structure change in child phonology is to repeat, or reduplicate, a stressed syllable in a word
    Syllabic structure
  20. ____ is the process by which children change one sound in a syllable so that it takes on the features of another sound in the same syllable
    Assimilation
  21. ___ ___ ___ changes occur when children replace a sound produced at one location in the mouth with a sound produced at a different location in the mouth. Ex: children often replace words produced farther back in the mouth with sounds that are produced farther forward in the mouth, so a child’s pronunciation of cake becomes take in this process, which is called fronting
    Place of articulation. tis not context dependent
  22. ___ ___ ___changes occur when children replace a sound produced in a particular manner with a sound produced in a different manner. A common substitution is called stopping, or replacing an affricate sound with a stop sound (jeep becomes deep)
    Manner of articulation
  23. An important skill that toddlers who are expanding their lexicons possess is becoming familiar with the differences in speech that __ __ __ ___ signal a difference in meaning
    do and do not
  24. -Toddlers recognize that two identical words uttered by different speakers are the ___ word
    -This skill provides evidence that toddlers have developed the ability to recognize that vocal characteristics of a speaker are not properties of the ___ themselves
    same ; words
  25. Around __ months of age, or approximately when many toddlers show evidence of a vocab spurt, seems to mark a transition period in phonological development
    18
  26. This transitional period is a developmental time frame during which language abilities are emerging and changing and is evidenced by toddler’s successful learning of ___ ___ (words that are not phonologically similar to known words) and difficulty learning ___ ____ (new words that are phonologically similar to known words)
    novel nonneighbors, novel neighbors
  27. The skill of becoming increasingly adept at recognizing words after hearing only parts of the words, or what is called ___ __ ___
    partial phonetic information
  28. -50 word mark is reached by between ___ months and ___ years
    -Signals ____ spurt
    -Usually co occurs with the appearance of children’s ____ grammatical morphemes
    18 month/2 years, vocab, first
  29. Grammatical morphemes begin to appear between ___ and ___ months, at about the time they have learned their first ____ words
    18/24; 50

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