Physics Test 2

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Author:
melissauri
ID:
286318
Filename:
Physics Test 2
Updated:
2014-10-19 23:04:06
Tags:
Radiation
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Description:
radiation
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  1. In 1896
    • Wolfram Fuchs gave what is generally recognized as first protection advice:
    • – exposure short as possible,
    • – do not stand within 12”(30 cm) of the X-ray tube
    • – coat skin with vaseline and leave an extra layer on the most exposed area
  2. In 1902
    Dentist from Boston killed
  3. In 1904 (Oct)
  4. Clarence Madison Dally, a glass blower at Thomas Edison's Menlo
    • Park lab, is first person known to have been killed by X-ray
    • exposure. Severely burned in 1896, continues work with X-rays until
    • 1898; his death causes Edison to discontinue radiation work in his
    • lab
  5. In 1912
  6. Christen puts forth concept of half value layer for shielding X or
    • gamma radiation; “... only half the incident radiation will be stopped
    • by each successive shielding layer”
  7. In 1926
  8. First film badge dosimeter developed with energy compensating filters
  9. In 1927
    • “Dutch Board of Health”recommends tolerance dose equivalent to
    • 15 R/y
  10. In 1928
    »  SecondInternationalCongressofRadiologyestablishes

    • “International Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection”;
    • publishes first set of international radiation protection standards;
    • Roentgen unit accepted

    • »  Organizationandfirstmeetingof“InternationalCommitteeonX-ray
    • and Radium Protection” (predecessor of ICRP)

    • »  Organizationof“USAdvisoryCommitteeonX-rayandRadium
    • Protection” (predecessor of NCRP)
  11. In 1932
    »  WB limit of 0.1R/day and 5R to fingers suggested;introduces

    concept of higher permissible dose to limited portions of body



    »  Roentgenunitisdefined
  12. Charlie Lauritsen
  13. credited
    • with having designed the first
    • direct reading pocket
    • dosimeters around 1932
  14. In 1945
  15. »  (Aug21)Harry Daghlian, a Los Alamos lab tech,is accidentally
    • lethally irradiated; first North American to die of acute radiation
    • sickness
  16. In 1953
    “International Commission on Radiological Units” defines absorbed dose [Rad] as 100 ergs per gram in any material. Prev. no limits
  17. "health Physics" refers to:
    the field of radiation protection
  18. What is a (RSO) Radiation Safety Officer?
    • "Radiological Safety Officer" (RSO) was
    • the title given to the military officer who
    • was responsible for radiological safety
    • during the U.S. atomic weapons tests in
    • the Pacific during the late 1940s
  19. What is an RSO today?
    • License to use radiation or radioactive
    • material

    • » License applications and amendments
    • » Listed on the license

    • • Radiation Safety Officer (RSO)
    • »  Qualified Individual
    • »  Agent of the Radiation Safety Committee
    • »  Implements Radiation Safety Program
    • »  Develops and updates the Radiation Safety
    • Manual



    »  Organization and Administration

    • – Personnel and resources
    • – Budget, Job Descriptions, etc
  20. 3 categories of Radiation Health
    • Occupational exposure
    • » Pregnant workers
    • » All others



    • General public exposure
    • » Incidental



    Medical exposure

    • » Intentional exposure for diagnostic or therapeutic
    • purposes
  21. 6 types of radiation signs
    • » Radioactive Materials
    • » Radiation Area
    • » High Radiation Area
    • » Very High Radiation Area
    • » X-rays In Use

    » Other Signs
  22. Mouth and Esophagus radio sensitivity:
    Radioresistant (50-75 Gy)

    *Muscle and connective tissue radio resistant
  23. Stomach radiosensitivity:
    40-50 Gy

    • Few Sv. Few hundred REM, stop chief and parietal cell secretions of HCL and pepsinogen
    • -Resume normal production following a delay
  24. Large intestine radiosensitivity:
    • about the same as stomach;
    • 40-50 Gy
  25. Small Intestine Radiosensitivity:
    • Very radiosensitive.
    • Probably determines survival or not.
    • Few Sv temporarily stops crypt cells from dividing
    • >10 Sv-crypt cells die: death in 6 to 10 days
  26. CNS radiosensitivity
    • Radioresistant
    • 50 Sv (5000 Rem) to produce cerebrovascular syndrome
    • -Severe nausea and vomiting within minutes of irradiation' loss of muscle control, seizures and coma
    • -para nervous system affected, death in hours
  27. Reproductive system radio sensitivity male:
    • Male sperm-.15 Sv (15 rem) produce temporary sterility.
    • 6 to 8 Sv (600-800 rem) produces permanent sterility
  28. Reproductive system radio sensitivity female:
    • 2 Gy (200 rads)produce temporary sterility
    • -Oocytes extremely radiosensitive, cell death with .12 Gy (12 Rad), immediate sterility.
  29. DRF -Dose-Reduction Factor=
    Dose with drug present/Dose without drug

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