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- Origin= inferior border of rib above.
- Insertion= Superior border of rib below.
- Action= With first ribs fixed, pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage; aid in inspiration;synergisst of diaphragm.
- Origin= superior border of rib below
- Insertion= Inferior border (costal groove) of rib above.
- Action= With 12th ribs fixed,draw ribs together and depress rib cage; aid in forced expiration; antagonist to external intercostals.
- Origin= inferior internal surface of rib cage and sternum, costal cartilages of last six ribs and lumbar vertebrae.
- Insertion= Central tendon.
- Action= Prime mover of inspiration; flattens on contraction, increasing vertical dimensions of thorax; when strongly contracted, increases intra-abdominal pressure.
- Origin= By fleshy strips from puter surfaces of lower eight ribs
- Insertion= Most fibers insert into linea alba, some insert into pubic crest and tubercle and iliac crest.
- Action= When the pair contract simultaneously, Flex vertebral column and copress abdominal wall; Insividually they help back muscles in Trunk rotation and lateral flexion
- Origin= Lumbar fascia, iliac crest and inguinal ligament.
- Insertion= Linea alba, pubic crest, last 3 or 4 ribs and costal margin.
- Action= As for external oblique
- Origin= Inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, cartilages of last six ribs; iliac crest.
- Insertion= Linea alba, pubic crest.
- Action= Compresses abdominal contents.
- Origin= Pubic crest and symphysis.
- Insertion= Xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7.
- Action= Flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column.
- Origin= Anterior surfaces of ribs 3-5
- Insertion= coracoid process of scapula.
- Action= With fixed ribs, moves scapula forward and downward; with fixed scapula, draws rib cage superiorly.
- Origin= by a series us muscle slips from ribs 1 to 8.
- Insertion= Entire anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula.
- Action= rotates angle of scapula laterally and upward. Raises point of shoulder; important role in abduction and raising of arm and horizontal movements( pushing and punching)
- Origin= Occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and spines of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae.
- Insertion= a continuous insertion along acromion and spine of scapula and lateral third of clavicle.
- Action= Stabilizes, raises, retracts, and rotates scapula; middle fibers retract (adduct) scapula; superior fibers raise scapula, inferior fibers depress scapula; when scapula is fixed head extends
- Origin= Sternal end of clavicle, sternum, cartilage of ribs 1-6, and aponeurosis of external oblique.
- insertion= Fibers converge to insert by a short tendon into greater tubercle of humerus.
- Action= Prime mover of arm flexion, rotates arm medially, adducts arm.
- Origin= embraces insertion of the trapezius; lateral third of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula.
- Insertion= Deltoid tuberosity of humerus.
- Action= Abduction of arm when all fibers contract; antagonist of pectoralis and latissimus dorsi which adducts the arm; anterior fibers flex and medial rotation of humerus, therefore synergist of pectoralis major; posteriors fibers cause extension and lateral rotation of arm.
- Origin= indirect attachment via thoracolumbar fascia into spines of lower six thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, lower 3 to 4 ribs and iliac crest.
- Insertion= Spirals around teres major to insert in floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus.
- Action= Arm extension, adduction and medial rotation of shoulder
- Origin= Subscapular fossa
- Insertion= Lesser tubercle of humerus.
- Action= Chief medial rotator of humerus
- Origin= supraspinous fossa
- Insertion= Superior part of greater tubercle in humerus.
- Action= Initiates abduction
- Origin= Infraspinous fossa
- Insertion= Greater tubercle of humerus, posterior to insertion from supraspinatus.
- Action=Rotates humerus laterally