Exam 2500

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  1. age 3-5 is considered the
    preschool years
  2. The earliest period of learning about reading and writing is known as the ____ ____
    emergent period
  3. Emergent literacy achievements largely depend on ___ ____, or the ability to view language as an object of attention
    metalinguistic ability
  4. Three important achievements in literacy for preschoolers
    • -alphabet knowledge
    • -print awareness
    • -phonological awareness
  5. Four hypothesis that characterize the order in which preschool children learn the names of individual alphabet letters
    • 1. Own name advantage
    • 2. Letter name pronunciation effect
    • 3. Letter order hypothesis
    • 4. Consonant order hypothesis
  6. Print awareness
    • -Development of print interest
    • -recognition of print functions
    • -understanding of print conventions
    • -understanding of print forms
    • -recognition of print part to whole relationships
  7. 2 parts of phonological awareness that begins to emerge around age __
    2; shallow and deep level of awareness
  8. By the end of the preschool period, children have mastered nearly ___ of the phonemes of their native language
  9. Preschoolers are highly intelligible and have an ____ expressive phonemic repertoire
  10. The phonological process (systematic errors children make in their speech) continues to _____ during the preschool years as children’s phonological systems stabilize
  11. Most processes disappear by age 5 years, the two most common patterns that make it to age 5 are ____ ____(when a liquid consonant is replaced by a glide) and a _____ (when a fricative is replaced by a stop consonant)
    liquid gliding, stopping
  12. Reading requires a child to have robust phonological representations to make sense of the ___ _____, or the relationship between letters or combinations of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes)
    alphabetic principle
  13. ___ ____ modifies the structure of words
    -Are the prefixes and suffixes added to a word to change its meaning and sometimes its part of speech
    Derivational morphology
  14. Six factors that contribute to the order in which children acquire these types of morphemes
    • 1. Frequent occurrence in utterance-final position
    • 2. Syllabicity
    • 3. Single relation between morpheme and meaning
    • 4. Consistency in use
    • 5. Allomorphic variation
    • 6. Clear semantic function
  15. Infants and children are most sensitive to sounds and words at the ends of utterances. Children first learn morphemes occurring as suffixes
    Frequent occurrence in utterance-final position
  16. Children first learn morphemes that constitute their own syllables (present prog -ing) and later learn morphemes that contain only a single sound (third person singular -s)
  17. Children first learn morphemes with only one meaning (ex: the) before they learn morphemes that express multiple meanings
    Single relation between morpheme and meaning
  18. Children learn the names of morphemes that are used consistently (eg possessive nouns that always end in -s) more easily than morphemes that vary in their use (eg past tense verbs sometimes end in -ed but at other times take an irregular form)
    Consistency in use
  19. Children learn morphemes that have a consistent pronunciation ( ex -ing) before they learn morphemes that have allomorphic variation (eg plural morpheme that has three variations : /s/ /z/ and /Iz/)
    Allomorphic variation -
  20. Children first learn morphemes that have a clear meaning (eg plural morpheme) before they learn morphemes with less clear meaning (eg third person singular morpheme such as “he runs”)
    Clear semantic function
  21. The most significant area of morpheme development in the preschool period is ___ _____ or understanding how english speakers inflect verbs with tense to provide information about time 
    -Mastering the verb to be in its copula and auxiliary forms, is huuuge
    verb morphology
  22. By the end of the preschool period children produce ___ ____ (I told daddy, and daddy told mommy), as well as ___ ____embedded with clauses (I told daddy, who told mommy)
    compound sentences, complex sentences
  23. Preschoolers learn about ___ words per year, averaging about 2 new words per day
  24. Children are able to acquire a general representation of a new word with as little as a single exposure through
    fast mapping
  25. E. Dales steps of vocab knowledge development
    • Stage 1. No knowledge of word
    • Stage 2. Emergent knowledge - Heard it but dont know what it means
    • Stage 3. Contextual Knowledge - I recognize it in context, it has something to do with..
    • Stage 4. Full knowledge
  26. Perceptual features of objects weigh in heavily in ____
    -Preschoolers continue to overextend object names on the basis of the information they have about other objects, but weigh the function of the object more heavily than its perceptual appearance
  27. Preschool age kids also use knowledge about the _____ of objects when inferring the meaning of new words
    -Preschoolers select animate objects as referents for novel proper names and inanimate objects as referents for common nouns
  28. Preschoolers infer the meanings of new words by recruiting _____ cues that signal the form class (noun, verb, adjective) of a novel word to narrow the possibilities for the referent of the word.
    -Children are more likely to assume that a novel word is an adjective when it is applied to more than one object.
  29. _____ reading contains the most diverse syntax and vocabulary and typically has a higher level of abstraction than that in other language contexts, including play
    -Variations in reading interaction with young children are related to their receptive 
    and expressive vocab
  30. ____ terms are words whose use and interpretation depend on the location of a speaker and listener within a particular setting (ex: here and this, which indicate proximity to the listener). To use these terms correctly, the speaker must be able to adopt their conversational partners perspective
  31. Generally children master terms by the time they enter school
  32. ___ ____ include interrogatives, temporal terms, opposites, local prepositions, and kinship terms
    Relational Terms. Which are understood once the underlying concepts are known
  33. -Pre pre’s are better at answering and asking questions
    -They usually respond innapropriately to questions they do not understand
    -What, where, who, whose, and which are learned before when, how, and why
  34. -Describe the order of events (before, after), the duration of events (since, until), and the concurrence of events (while, during)
    -Pre pre’s understand temporal terms describing order before they understand temporal terms describing concurrent events 
    -If a pre pre doesnt understand the meaning of temporal terms they rely on word order to interpret sentences
    Temporal Terms
  35. -Toddlers begin use, but it takes off in preschool age
    -Describe spatial relations (under the bed)
    -Most children have a solid understanding of this by the end of pre pre
    Locational Prepositions
  36. -Pre pre’s tend to learn kinship terms that refer to the family member with whom they are most familiar earlier than kinship terms that refer to family members with whom they are less familiar
    -Pre pre’s have difficulty with the reciprocity of the terms, like being a brother themselves
    Kinship Terms
  37. Preschoolers begin to use language for complex _____ functions such as interpretive, logical, participatory, and organization functions
  38. make clear the whole of a persons experience (I was scared after that movie)
    -Interpretive Function
  39. ____ ____express logical relations between ideas (lets put shoes on so we dont step on razors)
    -Logical functions -
  40. ___ ___express wishes, feelings, attitudes, and judgements
    -Participatory functions -
  41. manage discourse (first we did ___, then we did ___)
    -Organizating Functions -
  42. Pre pre’s learn to conversate better when they learn to ___ ____
    take turns
  43. Most pre pre’s can maintain a conversation for ___ or more turns
  44. A ____ is a childs spoken or written description of a real or fictional event from the past, the present, or future
    -Showcase developed syntax, morphology semantics, phonology, and pragmatics
    -Demonstrates ability to use decontextualized language
    A narrative
  45. two types of narratives
    personal, fictional
  46. Using both types of narratives makes a ___ sequence, which is a sort of cause and effect chain
  47. A ____ sequence unfolds with time (First we did this. Next we did this)
  48. Most kids cant construct narratives until about __ years old
  49. Gathering data for children’s narrative abilities is done through _____ research
    -It is a qualitative research method that involves gathering data about different societies and cultures with the aim of describing the nature of the populations of interest
  50. Kids from working class families use more ____ language than middle class children
  51. A preschooler will show one of many ___ ____, which are simultaneous patterns of language in multiple domains
    language profiles
  52. A language profile encompasses only the ___ ____ (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, or pragmatics) and not _____ (such as narrative discourse)
    language domains, competencies
  53. Literacy Profiles are simultaneous patterns of literacy, including competencies such as narrative discourse and metasemantics (the ability to think about and explain the meaning of words and sentences)
    Intraindividual differences
  54. observing a group of pre pres
    interindividual differences
  55. -When a group of preschoolers are compared, they exhibit a variety of language profiles 
    -Groups of preschoolers also can differer from another (aka clusters of samples)
    Interindividual Variation in Langauge Profiles
  56. Common tool for preschool years is to use a __ ___ ___
    language sample analysis
  57. ______ judgement are used to investigate various kinds of syntactic development in the preschool period
    -They require children to think about language and make judgements about the appropriateness of specific forms or interpret sentences (metalinguistic)
  58. Two forms of grammatical judgement tasks are used
    -Well-formedness - a child must decide whether a sentence is syntactically acceptable (What you favorite movie is vs what is your favorite movie

    -Judgements about interpretation - interpreting one or more parts of a sentence
  59. __ ____ tools are used to measure and monitor a childs progress in a certain are of language development

    Progress monitoring tools are used to measure and monitor a childs progress in a certain are of language developme
    Progress monitoring
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Exam 2500
2014-10-20 02:22:41
part 3
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