What regions of Asia were most drawn to Chinese cultural and political models?
Japan, Korea and Vietnam
When did Chinese influence on Japan peak?
7th and 8th cent. began: 5th and 6th cent.
What is the name of the nature spirits?
What religion played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan?
Which period in Japan had the least Chinese cultural influence?
What and when were the Taika Reforms? What was their purpose?
646 CE remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor
What group threatened the security of the Japanese imperial court in the 8th cent.?
What was the immediate impact of the imperial move to Heian?
Aristocracy took over most positions in central governement
What was the military organization of the Heian govt. in Japan?
Local members of the aristocracy were ordered to organize militia forces
What did the novel "Tale of Genji" describe?
life at the imperial court at Heian
Wnat appears to have been the primary concerns at the imp. Japaneses court at Heian?
aesthetic delights, social status, beauty, social interaction
Who were the Fujiwara?
dominated imperial court in 9th cent.
Who were the Bushi?
warrior leaders in the 10th cent. who controlled provincial areas of Japan from small fortresses
Describe the characteristics of the provincial military elite in 10th cent. Japan.
1) provincial elite came to control land and labor locally and to deny resources to imperial court
2) often arose from local landowners, estate managers, or local state officials
3) within little kingdoms, administered law, supervised public works projects, collected revenue
Who were the Samurai?
mounted troops who served the provincial military elite
Describe the relationship of the imperial court and prov. mil. elite
hired to serve as the bodyguards to protect
What was the nature of Bushi warfare?
battles hinged on man-to-man duels of great champions typical of the heroic stage of warfare
What impact did the Samurai have on Japan's peasantry?
reduced status to serfs bound to land they worked
By 11th, 12th cents. what was status of Japanese court aristocracy?
weakened P. 292
What were the Gempei wars?
settled power struggle between Taira and Minamoto families
What resulted from the victory of Minamoto in 1185?
established bakufu, capital at Kamakura, feudal age begin
What resulted from the growth in power of the prov. warrior elite?
power of imperial household and aristocracy declined
What Chinese Dynasty was in power when the warrior elite grew in Japan?
When did Japan cease to send embassies to China?
What is the shogun?
military leaders of the military government established by Minamoto
Who are the Hojo?
Warrior family long allied with Minamoto dominate Kamakura regime, ruled in name of emperor
Describe the Japanese govt. after the death of Yoritomo?
Hojo manipulate Minamoto shoguns who ruled in Name of emperor of Kyoto; Hojo leave Minamoto as formal leader
What is the Ashikga Shogunate?
succeeded Minamoto gov't at Kamakura, drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino and set up a puppet emperor in his place
What was the relationship between the Ashikaga Shog. and the emperor?
Ashikaga - head of branch of Minamotos. Emperor refuse to recognize Shogunate and tried to revive imperial power, exited to Yoshimo, fought rest of 14th cent.
Who are the Yoshino?
mountain town; where emperor, heirs, and warlords fought against Shogunate
What was the political result of the wars that destroyed the Ashikaga Shog.?
Kyoto and Shogunate destroyed provincial lords amass power and plan coalition to destroy enemies, Japan divided into 300 little kingdoms, rulers called daimyos
How did the principles of warfare change under the daimyos?
Chivalrous qualities deteriorate, peasants armed with pikes, less on outcome of samurai combat, victory on size/organization/effectiveness of forces
Describe Japanese society and economy under the warlord era.
barbarism, badly trained, poorly fed peasant troops growing source of misery, looted, pillaged, revolts, brutality, destruction. Economic growth: build up states, etc. P297
Describe the status of women under the daimyos.
fair degree of independence in merchant/artisan class; warrior class, women lose status, P 297
What role did Zen Buddhism play under the daimyos?
molified barbarism, renewed trade/ contacts with China, revival Chinese influence (cultural level)
What factors helped develop a lasting political unification in Japan?
Economic and cultural growth of the warlord era. The emerging and influential commercial and artisan classes want to trade across regional barriers with a unified currency, system of weights and measures. The legal and administrative systems established in each domains could be linked together to become a unified state and people acquired the professional govt. bureaucratic skill from the each region, to prepare them for the centralized role.
When did the Han conquer the Korean kingdom Chason?
109 BCE by emperor Wudi
Who are the Silla?
Kingdom in southeastern Korea, allied with Tang emperors to defeat Koguryo and Paekche
List chronologically the Korean dynasties
Kingdoms: Chason, Koguryo, Silla, Paekche, Yobo. Dynasties: Koryo, Yi
Describe the Korean bureaucracy under the influence of China.
admitted members almost exclusively by birth rather than test scores
What was the religious preference of the Korean elite?
Buddhism over Confucianism
Describe the nature of Korean society.
tiny elite, aristocratic families divided by ranks (no intermarriage/socializing, filled posts in bureaucracy, dominate social/economic life, p302
How were Viet and Chinese cultures different before the conquest by the Han?
spoken language not related, strong tradition of village autonomy, nuclear family, no strong clan network, women have greater freedom and influence
What Chinese cultural elements were introduced to the Viet?
bureaucracy, agriculture techniques/technology, political and military organization, extended family models
In the ways did the Chinese fail to assimilate the Vietnamese?
lack of impact of Chinese imports on peasantry p 305-306 The failure of chinese cultural imports to make an impact on the peasantry.
What aspects of Chinese culture did the Vienamese retain?
Chinese-style palaces, forbidden cities, bureaucracy, civil service exams, elite schooled in Confucian classics
What was the political result of the Vietnamese drive to conquer the south?
Nguyen emerged as rival to Tring in north, Nguyen capital at Hue. Fought for right to rule Vietnam