Chapter 7 Finance, Saving and Investment

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Author:
aburke2012
ID:
286344
Filename:
Chapter 7 Finance, Saving and Investment
Updated:
2014-10-20 02:25:14
Tags:
ECON 202
Folders:
ECON 202
Description:
University of Oregon ECON 202
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  1. Finance
    The activity of providing the funds that finance expenditures on capital.
  2. Money
    What we use to pay for goods, services and factors of production and to make financial transactions
  3. Physical Capital
    Tools made in the past that are used today to produce goods and services.
  4. Financial capital
    The funds firms use to buy physical capital
  5. Gross Investment
    Total amount spent on new capital
  6. Net Investment
    Gross investment minus depreciation, which is the change in the value of capital.
  7. Wealth
    Value of all the things that people own
  8. Saving
    Income not paid in taxes or spent on consumption goods.

    The main source of funds used to finance investment. These funds are supplied and demanded in three financial markets. Loan, bond and stock markets.
  9. Loan Markets
    loans from banks for businesses, mortgages for homebuyers, and credit cards, for example.
  10. Bond Markets
    A bond is a promise to make specified payments on specified dates.
  11. Stock Markets
    A stock is ownership claim on a firm
  12. Financial Institutions
    • Commercial Banks
    • Government-Sponsored Mortgage Lenders
    • Pension Funds
    • Insurance Companies

    An institution’s net worth is the difference between the market value of what it has lent versus what it has borrowed.

    • If net worth is + the firm is solvent
    • If net worth is - the firm is insolvent
  13. Interest rates and asset prices
    Interest rates are inversely proportional to asset prices.

    If price of bond increases, the interest rate on that bond decreases
  14. Real Interest Rates
    Adjusts for inflation – the borrower pays back with dollars “worth less” than originally borrowed.

    The opportunity cost of loanable funds
  15. Nominal interest rate
    the actual payments from a borrower to a lender as interest
  16. Demand for loanable funds determined by
    • 1. The real interest rate
    • 2. Expected profits
  17. Supply of loanable funds determined by
    • 1. The real interest rate
    • 2. Disposable income (more income means more saving)
    • 3. Expected future income (higher future income means less saving today).
    • 4. Wealth effect (more wealth means less saving today)
    • 5. Default risk (risk that a loan will not be repaid; less willing to supply funds if default risk is higher).
  18. Government budget surplus
    • Increases the supply of funds
    • Real interest rate falls
    • Private saving decreases
    • Investment increases
  19. Government budget deficit
    • Increases the demand for funds
    • The real interest rate rises
    • Private saving increases
    • Investment decreases - is crowded out
  20. Ricardo-Barro effect
    • A budget deficit increases the demand for funds.
    • Rational taxpayers increase saving, which increases the supply of funds.
    • Increased private saving finances the deficit. Crowding-out is avoided.
  21. If a country’s net exports are negative
    the rest of the world supplies funds to that country and the quantity of loanable funds in that country is greater than national saving
  22. If a country’s net exports are positive
    the country is a net supplier of funds to the rest of the world and the quantity of loanable funds in that country is less than national saving

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