Biology Study Notes - Search for Better Health

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  1. Define Health, according to the WHO. (1.1)
    Health is described as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
  2. What do we deduce from the WHO's definition of health? (1.1)
    • It takes the whole person into account; not just if they have a disease or not.
    • An individual who does not have a disease could still be unhealthy.
  3. Why is it difficult in defining the terms "health"? (1.1)
    • The concept of health is very subjective; it depends on ones own circumstances: a person who is fit may think themselves healthy, and a person with a disability may classify themselves healthy, as they have learnt to adapt and cope with their condition.
    • Disease is difficult to define as they have a different meaning in science than they do in colloquial speech; connotations that society places, etc.
  4. What is the WHO's definition of disease? (1.1)
    Any condition that adversely affects the functioning of a living thing.
  5. Why is it difficult in defining the terms "disease"? (1.1)
    • The definition is broad, and imprecise.
    • If the definition was to be taken literally, then you could argue that pregnancy or even a broken arm would be defined as a disease, as they both impede on regular body functioning.
    • Disease is difficult to define as they have a different meaning in science than they do in colloquial speech; connotations that society places, etc.
  6. Define Cell Differentiation. (1.2)
    Cells mature and take on different structural features, so that they become structurally suited to perform a specific function in the body.
  7. Define Specialization. (1.2)
    Specific genes are "switched on" in order to perform a particular function in the body.
  8. What is the purpose of Cell Differentiation and Specialistion? (1.2)
    • They work together in a healthy body to carry out complex functions in a controlled and coordinated way.
    • This is in order to maintain and repair tissues.
    • Without this, cells would not be able to function effectively and processes in the body would not be coordinated.
  9. What is the function of genes? (1.2)
    The maintenance of health is dependant upon the information stored in the DNA of each cell.

    • Genes control the production of polypeptides that make up proteins.
    • These proteins are responsible for regular cell functioning; growth and repair. If a gene malfunctions, it could prompt in the inability for the cells to function and thus the onset of disease.
  10. What is the function of mitosis? (1.2)
    • Cell growth
    • Cell repair
    • Genetic Stability

    If cells are damaged through disease or injury they are replaced by the division of healthy cells close to injury or diseased site.
  11. What are DNA repair genes?
  12. What are Proto-oncogenes?
  13. What are tumour suppressor genes?
  14. Distinguish between infectious disease and non infectious disease. (2.1)
    Infectious disease is caused by an organism or active agent known as a pathogen whereas a non infectious disease is not cause by a pathogen and with the exception of genetic diseases, are not passed from one person to another. A non infectious could have another of causes such as environment, nutrition and inheritance.
  15. Identify the conditions in which an organism is described as a pathogen. (2.2)
    • Any organism or infective agent that lives in or on another organism and causes disease.
    • May transmit from person to person.
    • Right conditions.
    • Transferred from environment (air, food, water)
    • Through vectors: e.g. mosquitos.
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Biology Study Notes - Search for Better Health
2014-10-20 09:02:35
Biology Study Notes
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