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- narrow p'ped or even OS
- observation + illumination arm coaxial (i.e. 0deg)
- low intensity
- low mag
- line up light beam with px pupil
- give px fixation targer
- focus slit on cornea or TF
- position CL in front of px eye
- pull back
when pulling back we focus on
- scratches on the lens
- blurry rectangular orange patch
- bright + more in focus + b.v. = on retina
once we see b.v. we can
widen width of illumination to a slightly thicker p'ped to scan retina easier
when we do px RE, px is to focus on
optom right ear
when px looking at corresponding optom ear, optom can see the __ when SL in focus
once post. pole assessed, we assess the
superior, inf, nasal and temporal fundus
which part of the retina is left till last?
we can see more periphery by asking px to look
up, down, left, right
If we want to see more detail, we should
increase the mag on the SL
What to observe
- any lesions
- any elevations/depressions
How to assess the NFL?
Use the red-free filter
Standard 90D lens has
- baseline mag = 0.76x
- FOV = 74deg
- WD = 7mm
base line mag 0.76x, WD = 7mm and FOV = 74deg is for which lens?
the standard 90D lens
Digital wide field lens has:
If initial view is not on the ONH,
follow vessel back to ON
Assessing the ON
- distinct margins?
- size of optic disc
- C/D and symmetry between eyes
- does NRR follow the ISNT rule?
- drance haemorrhages?
- NFL dropout corresponding to notching?
- bayonetting of vessles?
indistinct margins indicate
swelling of ONH due to changes in intracranial pressure
Describing the fundus
- size by DD
- location in DD
- which quadrant and its position (e.g. equator)
- layer (e.g. RPE, choroidal)
- elevation judged by depth and vasculature behaviour