AP World History

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meg.davis
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AP World History
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2014-10-20 09:17:44
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vocab test 67 - 126
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  1. Written by Murasaki. First novel of japanese/world literature
    Lady Murasaki and “The Tale of Genji
  2. historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. As a result, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia
    Central Asia and Mongolia
  3. Aryans invaded and destroyed Indus River civilization, settled, moved to Ganges River
    the Aryan invasion of India
  4. people of southern and central India and northern Sri Lanka who speak Dravidian languages, the best known of which are Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam
    Dravidians
  5. system was a basically simple division of society into four castes (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra) arranged in a hierarchy, with the "Untouchable" (Dalit) outcasts below this structure. But socially the caste system was more complicated, with many more castes and sub-castes and other divisions
    Indian caste system
  6. of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. A convert to Buddhism
    Ashoka
  7. Made into second capital by Constantine in attempts to help Rome turn its economy around
    Constantinople/Byzantine Empire
  8. r. 527 - 565 CE – is the Eastern Roman emperor who tried to restore the unity of the old Roman Empire. He issued the most famous compilation of Roman Law. He was unable to maintain a hold in Italy and lost the provinces of north Africa. It was the last effort to restore the Mediterranean unity
    Justinian
  9. a period in history between the last emperor of Rome, 475 A.D., and the Renaissance, about 1450 (15th century). Art production during this period was dominated by the Catholic Church
    early Medieval Europe “Dark Ages”
  10. The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands r fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service
    feudalism
  11. Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany (800 C.E). He helped restore some church-based education in western Europe, and the level of intellectual activity began a slow recovering. After death, the empire could not survive
    Charlemagne
  12. In 610/earlier, he received the first of many revelations: Allah transmitted to him through the angel Gabriel. Believed in the five pillars: (1) “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet.” (2) Pray facing the Mecca five times a day. (3) Fast during the month of Ramadan which enhances community solidarity and allowed the faithful to demonstrate their fervor. (4) The zakat, tithe for charity, strengthened community cohesion. (5) The haji, pilgrimage to the holy city Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka’ba
    Mohammed and the foundation of Islam
  13. Umayyad: Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam. Abbasid: Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam (750 C.E.) A caliph is a political and religious successor to Muhammad
    Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates
  14. To the 10th century, the wave reached the east African interior. Bantu-speaking herders in the north and farmers in the south mixed with older populations in the region. Others were moving to the African coast. Thus creating coastal trading ports
    Bantu and their migrations
  15. The Coptic (Christians of Egypt) influence spread up the Nile into Nubia (the ancient land of Kush). Muslims attempted to penetrate Nubia and met stiff resistance in the 9th century (left Christian descendants of ancient Kush – left as independent Christian kingdom until 13th century)
    Nubia
  16. Formed by 8th century by exchanging gold from the forests of west Africa for salt/dates from the Sahara or for goods from Mediterranean north Africa. Camels, were introduced tcreating better trade. By 3rd century C.E. it rose to power by taxing the salt and gold exchanged within its borders. 10th century, rulers had converted to Islam and were at its height of power. Almoravid armies invaded Ghana from north Africa (1076), the power was declining despite the kingdom’s survival. 13th century, new states rose
    Ghana
  17. Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico (1200 BCE); featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
    Olmec
  18. Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacán; extended over broad religion; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion
    Maya
  19. developed in the second millennium BCE in the central Andes and the central Pacific coast of South America. While oldest artifacts carbon date around 9750 BCE, evidence of a significant economic surplus begins around 2000 BCE. The Andean civilizations included the urbanized cultures of Chav�n, Moche, Ica-Nazca, Chimu, Tiwanaku, Aymara, Chachapoya, and other Pre-Inca cultures. The semi-urbanized Inca conquered greater Peru in the 15th century. Then, in the 16th century, the European fiefdom of Spain conquered Peru
    Andean societies
  20. The Mississippian culture was a Mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States in the centuries leading up to European contact. The Mississippian way of life began to develop around 900 A.D. in the Mississippi River Valley (for which it is named). Cultures in the Tennessee River Valley may have also begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. The Mississippian (archaeological) Stage is usually considered to come to a close with the arrival of European contact, although the Mississippian way of life continued among their descendants. There are many regional variants of the Mississippian way of life, which are treated together in this article
    Mississippian culture
  21. Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American civilization centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States
    Anasazi
  22. spread through cultures vs. independent inventing
    cultural diffusion versus independent innovation
  23. system of government with "rule by the best"
    aristocracy
  24. Senate and ……[peasant voting body]
    parliamentary bodies
  25. Political regime where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence)
    oligarchy
  26. state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country
    republic
  27. form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens
    democracy
  28. form of government in which a religion or faith plays a dominant role
    theocracy
  29. were not property themselves and could not be sold apart from the land which they worked. Serfdom is the forced labour of serfs, on the fields of the privileged land owners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields
    slavery vs. serfdom
  30. state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of violent, physical force between combatants or upon civilians
    war
  31. sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo
    trade routes
  32. most likely began from the islands of Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, spreading east, south, and north, covering millions of square miles of ocean sparsely dotted with islands.Polynesians migrated throughout the Pacific in sailing canoes, ultimately forming a triangle, whose points are Aotearoa (New Zealand) to the southwest, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to the east, and the Hawaiian Archipelago to the north
    Polynesian migrations
  33. Increase in migrations from Eurasia
    Eurasia’s great age of migrations
  34. belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities
    polytheism
  35. one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. Worship of Wisdom
    Zoroastrianism
  36. list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to the Bible, was spoken by the god YHWH to Moses on Mount Sinai and engraved on two stone tablets
    the Ten Commandments
  37. refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written and Oral Law
    the Torah
  38. of a series of disputations that took place in Europe during the Middle Ages, a group of rabbis were called upon to defend the Talmud. The attacks against Judaism was based on a long held idea that rabbis had "distorted" the Bible through their interpretations, keeping Jews from "adopting" Christianity
    the Talmud
  39. "Yahweh", God's name
    YHWH
  40. the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac; according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham's family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son; "Judaism, Christianity, and Islam each has a special claim on Abraham"
    Abraham
  41. Passover to celebrate the day the Jews were led out of Egypt and into their land by Moses
    Moses and the Exodus from Egypt – Passover
  42. David - Greatest king of jews. Solomon - wisest king on earth; fell to evilness, turned away from his God
    David and Solomon
  43. to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. The notion of diaspora is commonly accepted to have begun with the Babylonian Captivity in 597 BCE
    Jewish Diaspora
  44. of hymns counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language
    Vedism (Rig-Veda)
  45. encompasses many religious traditions that widely vary by culture, as well as many diverse beliefs and sects. The estimates of Hinduism's origin vary from 3102 BCE to 1300 BCE, and it is generally regarded as the world's oldest major religion
    Hinduism (Upanishads, Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita)
  46. transmigration of soul from one body to another
    Samsara
  47. he law behind reincarnation
    Karma
  48. cosmic ethnics
    Dharma
  49. the creator
    Brahma
  50. the preserver
    Vishnu
  51. the destroyer
    Shiva
  52. work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society, written c.200 in India. It is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or "laws of righteous conduct")
    Laws of Manu
  53. religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually spread throughout Asia to Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Southeast Asia, as well as the East Asian countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand
    Buddhism
  54. fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy
    Four Noble Truths
  55. way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths
    Eightfold Path
  56. Buddha; founder of Buddhism
    Siddhartha Gautama
  57. not a place nor a state, it is an absolute truth to be realized, and a person can do so without dying
    nirvana
  58. Buddha is Teacher; Buddha is God.
    Theravada (Hinayana) and Mahayana Buddhism
  59. set of philosophical teachings and religious practices rooted in a specific metaphysical understanding of the Chinese character Tao. For taoists, Tao could be described as the continuity principle behind the whole process of the constantly changing Universe
    Daoism
  60. The Book of the Way and its Virtue is an ancient Chinese scripture. The work is traditionally said to have been written around 600 BCE by the famous sage called Laozi. oldest of the Chinese classic texts. It describes an ancient system of cosmology and philosophy which is at the heart of Chinese cultural beliefs
    Tao-te Chng and the I Ching
  61. Founder/teacher of taoism
    Laozi
  62. an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius
    Confucianism
  63. record of speeches by Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held
    Analects
  64. Teacher/founder of Confucianism
    K’ung Fu-tzu (Confucius)
  65. blessing of Heaven and that if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased and would give the Mandate to someone else
    Mandate of Heaven

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