Fallacies

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Author:
ichiban2008
ID:
286366
Filename:
Fallacies
Updated:
2014-10-20 08:50:49
Tags:
Fallacy Fallacies
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Description:
Fallacies
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  1. What's a falacy
    • A false or mistaken idea; an often plausible argument using false or invalid
    • inferences
  2. Relation to Others
  3. Appeal to Authority/Testimonial
    Using a culture icon or someone with “authority” on the subject as “evidence” for your argument
  4. Appeal to Popularity/Bandwagon
    “Everyone’s doing it” –fear of rejection if you don’t join in…

    • “Four out of five dentists surveyed preferred Crest toothpaste over the other leading
    • brands.”

    • Advertisers who urge consumers to buy “the
    • brand that's number one” are
    • using bandwagon appeal.

    Numbers may not exactly be true or skewed to appeal to the consumer.

    “Many people…” -general claim!
  5. Attacks on an Individual
  6. Ad Hominem/Personal Attack
    Making a personal attack on the individual instead of arguing for themselves

    See this a lot in political ad campaigns
  7. Guilt by Association
    Assuming someone or something is not worth buying/trusting because he/she/it is associated with a certain group of people
  8. Poor and False Logical Development
  9. Post hoc ergo propter hoc/False Cause:
    Assuming since Event B followed Event A, then A must have caused B. 

    Statistics show that at beaches this past summer, ice cream sales have gone up. So has the number of people drowning in the ocean. Ice cream must be the reason.
  10. Extras
  11. Begging the Question
    • When the given argument depends on what
    • it is trying to support, and as a result, the argument in question is being used to prove itself.
  12. Loaded Question
    • Asking a question that assumes something that has not been proven yet - forces
    • an answer based on false premises.

    Do you know how fast you were going?”

    • Answer yes: admit to speeding
    • Answer no: admit not paying attention/speeding

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