407_exam2_patho_phys

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Author:
itzlinds
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286375
Filename:
407_exam2_patho_phys
Updated:
2014-10-22 10:46:42
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407 exam2 patho phyis
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407 exam 2
Description:
patho phys
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  1. the physiology related to disease is called:
    pathophysiology
  2. the control of the bodys biochemical balance is called:
    homeostasis
  3. list the 8 causes of cell damage:
    • physical trauma
    • toxins
    • infection
    • genetic abnormalities
    • malnutrition 
    • dehydration
    • hypoxia
    • combination of these factors
  4. list the 2 cellular response to injury/illness:
    when damaged, cells will either adapt or die
  5. damage at the cellular level can lead to tissue damage, which, in turn can lead to:
    organ damage
  6. list the 5 cellular adaptations:
    • atrophy
    • hypertrophy
    • hyperplasia
    • metaphasia
    • dysplasia
  7. increased in # of cells without a change in cell fnx is called:
    hyperplasia
  8. the change in the type of adult cells in a tissue for a form abnormal for that tissue is called:
    metaplasia
  9. when cell change to an abnormal cell and increase
  10. list the 2 ways in which damaged tissues heal:
    • regeneration of the original tissue type
    • replacement of the original tissue type with connective (scar) tisse
  11. list the 3 primary tissue healing stages:
    • inflammatory
    • proliferative
    • remodeling/maturation
  12. what is the mechanism for the acute inflammation s/sx of pain:
    tissue damage (primary & secondary)
  13. a result of long- term chemical irritation or mechanical stress is called:
    chronic inflammation

    • -destructive to the cells & tissues
    • -produces more fibrin & college to protect the undamaged tissues or isolate the offending substance
    • -can prevent or inhibit tissue healing
  14. aching pain, pitting edema, mild- moderate muscle spasm
  15. a specialized inflammatory response is called:
    infection
  16. cell damage caused by the infectious organism causes:
    inflammation
  17. the activation of the immune system can also simulate a generalized inflammatory response, which is:
    more widespread than a with a local
  18. activated leukocytes in the blood affect neurons in the medulla, which cause:
    a increase in body temp (fever)
  19. list 4 increased metabolic demands as a result of fever:
    • hyperpnea (rapid respiration)
    • tachycardia 
    • catabolism (breakdown of muscle, other tissues, expect fat)
  20. list the 4 physiological effect of fever:
    • unusual fatigue
    • malaise (feeling bad)
    • weakness
    • loss of appetite
  21. when does a fever "break"
    when microogranism have been eliminated
  22. to replace energy stores taht were drained during the course of the fever, what returns:
    appetite
  23. mature bone cells that are produced by osteoblasts and resorbed by osteoclasts are called:
    osteocytes
  24. what cover joint surfaces, that decreases the friction between opposing bones:
    articular cartilage

    • avasuclar
    • has no nerve supply
  25. a change in pathology can lead to a disruption of the homeostatic balance b/w osteocytes, osteoblasts, & osteoclasts.. what can be affected:
    bone mass & density

    osteoporosis is associated with more bone being resorbed than is rebuilt
  26. a fx'ed bone can heal, given the 4 appropriate environment:
    • alignment & approximation of bone ends
    • stability
    • sterility
    • nutrition
  27. stages of bone healing
    • hematoma
    • soft callus
    • hard callus
    • remodeling
  28. llist 4 skeletal muscle pathologies:
    • physical trauma 
    • infection
    • genetic disease
    • metabolic disease
  29. significant damage to smooth or cardiac muscle can lead to:
    severe impairment or complete loss of fxn in the associated organ
  30. list 4 nerve pathologies:
    • physical trauma
    • toxins (tetnis) 
    • infections (MRSA)
    • metabolic imbalance
  31. many nerve pathologies can affect the nervous system:
    directly or indirectly
  32. signs of nervous system impairment are often early indications of:
    systemic disease
  33. some nerve disease affect nerve cell fxn include:
    ability to propagate electrical nerve signals

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