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independent voltage source
a source whose voltage across its terminals is always the same regardless of the current through it

ideal independent voltage source (constant voltage)
batteries and voltage power supplies come close to idea under low to moderate currents

independent curren source (constant current)
the current out of the source is always the same regardless of the voltage across the terminals

active source vs passive sign convention
active voltage or current sources carry their own sign; ignore psc

in an electrical equivalent to fluid flow, voltage is
pressure, the fluid's equivalent to electrical flow

KVL
Kirchhoff's voltage law: the sum of voltages around any closed loop is zero

Kirchhoff's Tour
going arounda ny loop while summing its voltages

KT rule 1
when using KVL (kirchhoff's voltage law) around a loop, take the first sign encountered

KT rule 2
each independent loop must include at least one NEW branch not included in any other loop

KT rule 3
for n nodes, KCL gives (n1) independent equations

KCL
Kirchhoff's current law: the sum of currents at any node is zero

node
the point at which two or more circuit elements join

essential nodes
where more than two circuit elements join

branch
a single path that connects one essential node to another

branch current method step 1
assign a current to each branch that DOES NOT have a current source.

branch current method step 2
assign a voltage to each element that does not have a specified voltage

branch current method step 3
apply KVL to each independent loop, ohm's law to each resistor, and KCL to each essential node

branch current method step 4
solve the simultaneous equations

