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  1. Bioarchaeology
    • study of human remains
    • collection based research (already excavated)
  2. goal of bioarchaeology?
    use the human body and anatomy to ascertain how people lived, what they ate etc.
  3. Osteogenesis
    production of bone
  4. periosteum

    Image Upload 1
    membrane that surrounds the outer surfaces of bone and in which osteogenesis occurs.
  5. osteoblasts
    cell that forms bone; cell that puts down bone
  6. osteocytes
    • - Once osteoblasts become trapped in the matrix they produce, they become osteocytes, which are star-shaped cells that make up the majority of bone in the skeleton
    • - A branched cell embedded in the matrix of bone tissue.
  7. osteoclasts
    • - Cells that break down bone by removing the bone’s mineralized matrix.
    • - body continually does this throughout life
    • - A specialized bone cell that absorbs bone, allowing for the deposition of new bone and maintenance of bone strength.
  8. 2 major types of bone
    • trabecular bone
    • cortical bone
  9. trabecular bone

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    • makes up inner part of bone
    • generally found at the end of long bones; Occupies the interior of most bones and vertebrae.
    • spongy bone
    • contains red bone marrow responsible for blood cell production
  10. cortical boneImage Upload 3
    • Dense bone that is comprised of multiple stacked layers that form the outer surfaces of bones in the body
    • constitutes 80% of the weight of the human skeleton.
  11. T/ F

    Humans have more trabecular bone than mammals?

    this is one way you can tell between human remains or faunal remains
  12. wolffs law
    • developed in 19th century 
    • states that bone replaces itself in the
    • direction of functional demand.ex. Tennis player
  13. notion that everyone's skeleton is a little different in terms of statistical measurements is referred to as
    idiosyncrasy or idiosyncratic
  14. Bone is constantly remodeling
    itself.  Bone is completely replaced in
    an individual’s skeleton every ______ years.
  15. how can a skeleton reveal a persons age?
    teeth: good indicator for detecting
  16. in osteogenesis all major bones have ________
    growth plates
  17. epiphysis
    vital growth area near the end of a long bone, which later fuses with the main bone through ossification.

    • - when bone is growing epiphysis is open
    • - epiphysis closes and growth plate fuses when maturity occurs (mostly during teens)
    • - age can be determined depending on open or closed epiphysis (can get very accurate age if in teens)
    • - clavical stays open the longest; fuses in late 20's
    • - once epiphysis is closed age determination is much difficult
    • - epiphysis occurs at a constant rate
    • - different bones fuse at different times in life

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  18. when epiphysis is closed and age determination is more difficult, what else can be referred to for age?
    dental remains
  19. a relative way to establish age is ______
  20. ways to establish age?
    • dentition
    • epiphysis
    • sutures in head
  21. sutures
    • provides long age range
    • smooth in young individuals
    • messier in older individuals (pitting)
  22. distal
    furthest end
  23. proximal
    closest to
  24. dental ware has to do with?
    diet and nutrition
  25. ontogony
    • variation resulting from the growth of an individual.
    • differences as a result of growth
  26. Sexual Dimorphism
    differences in morphology between male and female members in a species

    ex: difference in size, shape, skeleton, body structure
  27. idiosyncratic
    normal variation between individuals of the same sex, age, and population. (everyone is different in terms of measurements)
  28. Image Upload 5
    • 1) Idiosyncratic variation - normal variations between individuals of the same sex, age, population
    • 2)Sexual Dimorphism - differences between male and female (1st 3 female, last 3 male)
    • 3)ontogony - differences as a result of growth
  29. Sexing Skeletons (how to tell difference)
    • Sexual Dimorphism-  Marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrast in breasts, genitals, and hair growth (manifests in gametes)
    • Skeletal markers: skull and pelvis - female element construction are smaller, lighter, less robust
    • Innominate (hips), “inlets” or notches: tend to be wider in females, especially the sciatic notch and ventral arch needed for birth
    • Cranium: Males typically exhibit more prominent supraorbital ridges, prominent glabellar region, larger broader palates, squarer orbits, larger mastoid processes, larger occipital condyles, and more robust mandibles with large mental eminence.
  30. deciduous teeth
    baby teeth
  31. permanent teeth
    adult teeth
  32. _____ are better indicator for age
  33. eruption
    • When tooth comes thru gums
    • - teeth could be in eruption, but it does
    • not rub against the other teeth
  34. occlusion
    all teeth come into occlusion. When they actually touch. Ex. Chewing
  35. what area?
    Image Upload 6
    alveolar fossa
  36. The difference between humans that are dead and alive as far as dentition:
    gums decay and disappear
  37. Diseases that manifest skeletally
    • Dental infections are the most obvious disease Caries (cavities) – wear on enamel
    • Calculous (plaque) build up can lead to infections and diseases.
    • cavity left unattended could be lethal, leads to secondary infections, and then to blood poisoning
    • Without proper dental health, teeth tend to migrate from the alveolar fossa.
    • Older people have recession – gum and mandible start to receed
  38. _____ are the hardest bone in the body and remodel every ____ yrs
    • teeth
    • 7-10
  39. differences between bioarchaeologists in the field and the lab?
    • LAB: based on collection research usually from museum or agency that houses remains
    • FIELD: excavates burials/remains gets individual data
  40. Treponematosis
    • infection with or disease caused by treponemata
    • by the bacteria in the phylum Spirochaetes
    • includes venereal syphilis, endemic syphilis, yaws, and pinta
    • shows up in webbed structures and skull pitting
  41. syphillis
    • - Prolonged 3 stage disease
    • - Entered into europe in 1492
    • - Vigilant pathogen if not suited with host -     
    •   either organism dies or host dies
  42. Tuberculosis
    • - Manifests skeletally through secondary infection.
    • - Affects vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and epiphyses
    • comes from cows
    • - Pitting stage = host has been sick a long time
  43. Leprosy
    • bacterial disease that manifests skeletally in many ways:
    • 1) break down in bone in sinus region
    • 2) reabsorption of bones
    • 3)loss of feeling in extremeties (prone to injury)
  44. Skeletal Markers Reflecting Trauma
    or Stress
    • •Skeleton is a vehicle for factors of stress and trauma
    • •Lack of nutrition is form of stress
    • •periods of starvation when young will have harris lines in teeth called enamel hypoplasia
  45. enamel hypoplasia
    • result of starvation
    • when tooth stops growing, cells stop and start to linger causing harris lines
  46. Ebarnation - what is it where is it found?
    • • found in osteoarthritic persons
    • •articular surface of joint grind against each other and smooths it down
  47. osteoarthritis
    • degenerative disorder of joints
    • characterized by breakdown joint cartilage
    • causing ebarnation
  48. osteophytes
    outgrowth of bone that can cause a reduction in a joint’s range of motion.

    osteophytes in adjacent bones may grow together causing a fusion of the joint also known as ankylosis

    • function of wolffs law,as bone gets put under stress, bone responds by putting down more bone
    • Grows to such an extent that bone fuses together and reduces mobility
  49. 3 ways of establishing injuries caused by  violence
    • 1) premortum-
    • elements of healing going on

    • 2)perimortum-injuries
    • sustained at moment of death

    • 3)post mortum –
    • things that happen after death
  50. can manifest in a myriad of ways exhibiting blunt vs. sharp trauma, healed
    fractures, defensive wounds etc.
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