use the human body and anatomy to ascertain how people lived, what they ate etc.
production of bone
membrane that surrounds the outer surfaces of bone and in which osteogenesis occurs.
cell that forms bone; cell that puts down bone
- Once osteoblasts become trapped in the matrix they produce, they become osteocytes, which are star-shaped cells that make up the majority of bone in the skeleton
- A branched cell embedded in the matrix of bone tissue.
- Cells that break down bone by removing the bone’s mineralized matrix.
- body continually does this throughout life
- A specialized bone cell that absorbs bone, allowing for the deposition of new bone and maintenance of bone strength.
2 major types of bone
makes up inner part of bone
generally found at the end of long bones; Occupies the interior of most bones and vertebrae.
contains red bone marrow responsible for blood cell production
Dense bone that is comprised of multiple stacked layers that form the outer surfaces of bones in the body
constitutes 80% of the weight of the human skeleton.
Humans have more trabecular bone than mammals?
this is one way you can tell between human remains or faunal remains
developed in 19th century
states that bone replaces itself in the
direction of functional demand.ex. Tennis player
notion that everyone's skeleton is a little different in terms of statistical measurements is referred to as
idiosyncrasy or idiosyncratic
Bone is constantly remodeling
itself. Bone is completely replaced in
an individual’s skeleton every ______ years.
how can a skeleton reveal a persons age?
teeth: good indicator for detecting
in osteogenesis all major bones have ________
vital growth area near the end of a long bone, which later fuses with the main bone through ossification.
- when bone is growing epiphysis is open
- epiphysis closes and growth plate fuses when maturity occurs (mostly during teens)
- age can be determined depending on open or closed epiphysis (can get very accurate age if in teens)
- clavical stays open the longest; fuses in late 20's
- once epiphysis is closed age determination is much difficult
- epiphysis occurs at a constant rate
- different bones fuse at different times in life
when epiphysis is closed and age determination is more difficult, what else can be referred to for age?
a relative way to establish age is ______
ways to establish age?
sutures in head
provides long age range
smooth in young individuals
messier in older individuals (pitting)
dental ware has to do with?
diet and nutrition
variation resulting from the growth of an individual.
differences as a result of growth
differences in morphology between male and female members in a species
ex: difference in size, shape, skeleton, body structure
normal variation between individuals of the same sex, age, and population. (everyone is different in terms of measurements)
1) Idiosyncratic variation - normal variations between individuals of the same sex, age, population
2)Sexual Dimorphism - differences between male and female (1st 3 female, last 3 male)
3)ontogony - differences as a result of growth
Sexing Skeletons (how to tell difference)
Sexual Dimorphism- Marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrast in breasts, genitals, and hair growth (manifests in gametes)
Skeletal markers: skull and pelvis - female element construction are smaller, lighter, less robust
Innominate (hips), “inlets” or notches: tend to be wider in females, especially the sciatic notch and ventral arch needed for birth
Cranium: Males typically exhibit more prominent supraorbital ridges, prominent glabellar region, larger broader palates, squarer orbits, larger mastoid processes, larger occipital condyles, and more robust mandibles with large mental eminence.
_____ are better indicator for age
When tooth comes thru gums
- teeth could be in eruption, but it does
not rub against the other teeth
all teeth come into occlusion. When they actually touch. Ex. Chewing
The difference between humans that are dead and alive as far as dentition:
gums decay and disappear
Diseases that manifest skeletally
Dental infections are the most obvious disease Caries (cavities) – wear on enamel
Calculous (plaque) build up can lead to infections and diseases.
cavity left unattended could be lethal, leads to secondary infections, and then to blood poisoning
Without proper dental health, teeth tend to migrate from the alveolar fossa.
Older people have recession – gum and mandible start to receed
_____ are the hardest bone in the body and remodel every ____ yrs
differences between bioarchaeologists in the field and the lab?
LAB: based on collection research usually from museum or agency that houses remains
FIELD: excavates burials/remains gets individual data
infection with or disease caused by treponemata
by the bacteria in the phylum Spirochaetes
includes venereal syphilis, endemic syphilis, yaws, and pinta
shows up in webbed structures and skull pitting
- Prolonged 3 stage disease
- Entered into europe in 1492
- Vigilant pathogen if not suited with host -
either organism dies or host dies
- Manifests skeletally through secondary infection.
- Affects vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and epiphyses
comes from cows
- Pitting stage = host has been sick a long time
bacterial disease that manifests skeletally in many ways:
1) break down in bone in sinus region
2) reabsorption of bones
3)loss of feeling in extremeties (prone to injury)
Skeletal Markers Reflecting Trauma
•Skeleton is a vehicle for factors of stress and trauma
•Lack of nutrition is form of stress
•periods of starvation when young will have harris lines in teeth called enamel hypoplasia
result of starvation
when tooth stops growing, cells stop and start to linger causing harris lines
Ebarnation - what is it where is it found?
• found in osteoarthritic persons
•articular surface of joint grind against each other and smooths it down
degenerative disorder of joints
characterized by breakdown joint cartilage
outgrowth of bone that can cause a reduction in a joint’s range of motion.
osteophytes in adjacent bones may grow together causing a fusion of the joint also known as ankylosis
function of wolffs law,as bone gets put under stress, bone responds by putting down more bone
Grows to such an extent that bone fuses together and reduces mobility
3 ways of establishing injuries caused by violence
elements of healing going on
sustained at moment of death
3)post mortum –
things that happen after death
can manifest in a myriad of ways exhibiting blunt vs. sharp trauma, healed
fractures, defensive wounds etc.