History 222 Midterm Set 1

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History 222 Midterm Set 1
2014-10-22 04:26:03

HY 222-01 fall 2014
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  1. Second Industrial Revolution
    • Power
    • communications
    • unions
    • Inequality
    • business/organizations
  2. Morrill Act
    • Gave public universities land
    • land grant colleges
    • broaden educational opportunities and foster technical and scientific expertise
  3. Homestead Act
    • Gave land to anybody who would occupy the land and develop it.
    • Wanted to settle the west
  4. Investment Banks
    Created to help railroads be built and generate more capital by letting other people generate money and help your cause
  5. Stock Market
    Created to help railroads be built and generate more capital by letting other people generate money and help your cause
  6. Department Stores
    • Stores where everything was offered in the same places for cheaper prices than the smaller general store
    • Ex. Macy's, Sears, etc
  7. American System
    • America's way of manufacturing
    • First for weapons
    • Consumer goods
    • Then leisure goods
  8. Scientific Management
    • Program studying industrial efficiency
    • Developed by Fredrick Taylor
    • eliminate all brain work and just do what told
  9. Mass Production
    Combined Scientific management and the American System to save time and money
  10. Research Laboratory
    • Labs to make products cheaper, better, and stronger
    • Also create new products
  11. Horizontal integration
    • Controlled all aspects of that production area
    • capture as large share of part of a business
  12. Vertical Integration
    • Company controlled all aspects of production
    • from raw materials to finished goods
    • capture as much of what you can of all business
  13. Great Migration
    When African American’s moved from the south to the north as whole groups
  14. Chinese Exclusion Act
    • Created the legal foundations for racism
    • barred the Chinese from becoming citizens
  15. Old Immigrants versus New Immigrants
    • Old immigrants from northern and western Europe
    • New immigrants from southern and eastern Europe
  16. Republicanism
  17. Molly Maguires
    • Coal workers of eastern Pen
    • Believed violence and threats of murder would make the owners of the mine pay them more
  18. Knights of Labor
    • believed that ordinary people needed control over the enterprises in which they worked
    • wanted America to be cooperative commonwealth
    • didn't care about race except for the Chinese
    • grassroots of labor activism
  19. American Railway Union
    • Founded by Eugen Debs
    • Lead the Pullman Strike
    • Made up of both skilled and unskilled workers
  20. Anarchism
    • Believed that workers should own factores
    • Believed the working place should be a democracy
  21. Haymarket
    • riot
    • Anarchists called a meeting
    • police tried to disperse the crowd
    • bomb thrown
    • police shoot
    • 8 anarchists found guilty not because evidence but anti-gov
  22. Homestead Strike
    • In Andrew Carnagie Factory
    • Got new equipment with different instructions so had to re-train
    • Just locked out workers and decided to hire more
    • Fought and several died
  23. Pullman Strike
    • Company going through hard time so laid off workers
    • Workers lived in company housing, so lower trade prices, increase company store price
    • Lead by Eugene Debs
  24. American Federation of Labor
    • Led by Samuel Gompers
    • less interested in challenging corporate order
    • more interested in winning larger share of its rewards
    • mostly skilled craftsmen
  25. Mass Production/Mass Consumption
    • rising income so mass consumption
    • mass consumption leads to mass production
    • leads to increased income/profit so cycle repeats
  26. High‐brow / Low‐brow
    • High-brow – more influential people in society, richer
    • Low-brow – poor people
  27. Separate spheres
    • The typical belief that women and men had separate sphere of influence
    • Men went to work, while women stayed at home
    • Women nicer than men
  28. Enlightened motherhood
    • A good mother have fewer kids
    • Kids cost money, investment take time and money
  29. Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    • tried to curb alcohol abuse by prohibiting liquor sales
    • especially focused on violence in the home life
    • also tried to get women's rights
  30. Municipal housekeeping
    • Taking care of the city like the take care of the home
    • Clean it up of all the dirty
    • Civic housekeeping
  31. National American Women’s Suffrage Association
    • movement for women's suffrage reunited
    • won victories in the west
    • also supported feminism
  32. Talented tenth
    • WEB DuBois
    • If everybody farmers, then no professionals
    • Encourage top tenth to get professional degree
  33. Atlanta Compromise
    • Led by Booker T. Washington
    • Said that blacks would work meekly and not argue for politics if southern whites agreed to basic education and due process in law
    • Wanted blacks to do trade school
  34. Muscular Christianity
    • combines evangelism with gyms and athletic facilities
    • men could make themselves clean and strong
    • YMCA
  35. Strenuous life
    Help the man become a man again
  36. Wilderness
    • outdoors was more leisure and renewal, rather than danger and hard work
    • camping, hiking, biking boomed
  37. Biblical criticism
    Not theology but morality and following the example of Jesus
  38. Social Gospel
    • WWJD
    • Liberal people today
  39. Comstock Laws
    • prohibited circulation of almost any information about sex and birth control
    • stop young people from having sex
  40. Fundamentalism
    • New types of religion were wrong
    • Baptist and Methodist
    • Wanted to go back to the fundamental start
  41. Hyphenates
    • An American from another country such as a Jewish-American or German-American.
    • Usually lived together
  42. Tenements
    • Apartments
    • Dumbbell Style
    • No bathrooms or kitchens
  43. Tammany Hall
    • political machine in New York
    • dispensed jobs and patronage
    • arranged for urban services
    • tried to stay in office
    • rough and ready social services
    • George Plunkitt and William "Boss" Tweed
  44. Nativism
    • Fear of foreigners
    • Problems in society go back to foreign people
    • Targets - Non-whites, Catholics, and Jews
  45. Muckrakers
    Exposing dirt about things
  46. Salvation Army, YMCA, YWCA
    • programs designed to help the poor while spreading the gospel
    • Urban Missions
  47. Settlement Houses
    • Crucial to reform
    • Wanted Americanization first but didn’t work so studied Urbanization
    • Misc odd things around neighborhood and social work
    • Fixed garbage collection
    • Started day care
  48. National Consumers League
    • improve wages and working conditions for female store clerk
    • encouraged women to only shop where everything was fair
    • most powerful progressive organization for advocating worker protections laws
  49. Protective legislation
    Protect children and working women
  50. NAACP
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    • Help found many associations for black people
    • Powerful force for racial justice
  51. Urban League
    Worked with machines to get back American jobs
  52. Pendleton Act
    • Wanted government jobs to go to the people who had the best merit for that job
    • Led to more women in the workforce because they could also get an education
  53. Sherman Act
    • Broke up trusts
    • Regulated the market a little more
  54. Gold Standard, Bimetallism, Greenbacks
    • Different systems of currency
    • Gold standard was based on the weight and the amount of gold – supported by rich people
    • Bimetallism introduced silver – supported by poor people
    • Greenbacks paper dollars – more options for dealing with depression
  55. Coxey’s Army
    • Jacob Coxey proposed that government hire unemployed to fix roads.
    • Organization men to march to Washington to peacefully appeal for the program
    • Arrested for walking on the grass.
  56. Grangers, Alliances, Populists
    • Grange – national organization of farmers mostly state level
    • Realized that was not enough so Farmers alliances – buy equipment and share it
    • Populist – political power called People’s party – radical
  57. Plessy v. Ferguson
    • segregation was constitutional as long as separate but equal facilities
    • separate was equal
  58. Williams v. Mississippi
    Supreme Court allowed poll taxes and literacy tests to stand.
  59. Socialist Party
    • On the Lyrical Left
    • Led by Eugene Debs
    • From grass roots
    • Pushed Democrats and Republicans to action
  60. Industrial Workers of the World
    • IWW or Wobblies
    • Believed in Marxist class struggle and wanted a work place lead by the workers
    • Helped spark a number of strikes
  61. Muller vs. Oregon
    Upheld limiting women’s workday to ten hours
  62. Expertise
    • People put a lot of faith in the experts
    • Experts believed the middle class people could solve the problems
  63. Conservation
    • New Business Regulation
    • Concerned that natural resources running out
    • Government should regulate these natural resources
  64. 16, 17 Amendments
    • 16 Amendment – income tax
    • 17 Amendment – Congress chosen by popular vote not by state legislature
    • Both in 1913
  65. National Women’s Party
    • Younger and much more radical
    • Tried to get arrested to get attention
    • Led by Alice Paul
  66. National Civic Federation
    Sought to bring responsible members of labors and business together
  67. Manifest Destiny
    God wanted American’s to control continent from Atlantic to Pacific
  68. Anglo-Saxonism
    • God favored white people and they had a responsibility to extend civilization to the entire world
    • Josiah Strong
  69. Navalism
    • Influence of Sea Power on History
    • Alfred Mahan
  70. USS Maine
    • New ship
    • Sailed to Cuba
    • Exploded in Havana Harbor
    • Diving teams said Cuba fault
    • American people thought we should go to war
  71. US-Filipino War
    Really between Spain, US, and Cuba.  US won lots of terriotory, but didn’t know what to do with it
  72. “White Man’s Burden”
    Feeling that white guys have to go out and civilize other people
  73. Insular Cases
    Congress can do what they want with the newly acquired territory
  74. Open Door Notes
    • Calling for China to be persevered
    • Not divided, stay together, ports open to everyone
    • When open to everyone, we would dominate
  75. Roosevelt Corollary
    • America only interfere with foreign policy if we have to protect our own interests
    • Wanted to protect American private property
  76. “Banana Wars”
    series of occupations and interventions in the Caribbean and Spanish-America about American property
  77. Zimmerman telegram
    • When Germany decided to take leash off of U-Boats and attack American ships
    • Also, Germany wanted to expand and asked Mexico to attack America
    • Britain intercepted and sent to American newspapers
    • People wanted war
  78. War Industries Board
    • Dollar a Year Men
    • In charge of part of economy during war
    • What to produce and who to produce it
  79. Espionage Act, Sedition Act
    • Espionage act – no false statements against recruitment/draft/military
    • Sedition Act – no disloyal, profane, scurrilous, abusive language
  80. Liberty Bonds
    • debt by the US government
    • you buy them
    • Government promised to pay back after war
  81. American Expeditionary Force
    • Soldiers that had training and sent to Europe
    • Fought alongside the French
  82. 18th, 19th Amendments
    • 18 – established prohibition
    • 19 – gave women the right to vote
  83. Spanish Flu
    • Killed more people than the Great War
    • 600k in US
  84. Fourteen Points
    • What the US is fighting for
    • Wanted everything in the open, no more secrets
  85. Versailles Treaty
    • Treaty that ended WWI
    • Germany to pay for war
    • Lost territory, get rid of army, navy, etc.
  86. League of Nations
    • Organization proposed in the Fourteen Points
    • Americans didn’t like because too much control
    • If League declared war, then each nation had to declare war
  87. American Plan
    • Fire workers in unions
    • Hire strike breakers
  88. Communist Party
    • Only about 70k
    • Led to Red Scare
  89. ACLU
    • American Civil Liberties Union
    • Tried to help people by protecting civil liberties in the Red Scare
  90. Sheppard-Towner Act
    • Created clinics with free health care
    • Shut down in late 1920s because government didn’t want to pay for it anymore and no political reason because women were not voting as a block
  91. Associative State
    • Wanted active government interested in promoting economic growth
    • Hire experts to come in and organize the best practices
    • Published a code of fair competition
  92. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    • Outlawed war
    • France wanted America to sign it
    • If Germany went to war with France, then American would have to get involved because Germany broke treaty
  93. War debts
    • Dawes and Young Plan
    • Loan money to Germany, Germany pay Britain, Britain pay America, America pay back war bonds
  94. Good neighbor policy
    Cheaper to hire thugs to enforce ideas instead of sending troops (let dictator rule)
  95. Prohibition
    Alcohol prohibited in 18 amendment, repealed in 21 amendment
  96. Scopes Trial
    • Monkey trail
    • Scopes taught lecture on evolution in science class
    • William Jennings Bryan for other side
    • Covered by national and international press
  97. National Origins Act
    • Limited immigration based on the 1890 census and allowed a 2% increased
    • Severely limited the number of Asian immigrants, along with European immigration
    • Allowed open immigration from Western Hemisphere
  98. Harlem Renaissance
    • Flowering of black arts and culture in Harlem, New York
    • Music – Jazz and blues
    • Dancing, and Night clubs
  99. Mass Culture
    Hollywood, Sports, magazine, radio, etc
  100. Welfare capitalism
    Companies offering benefits as ways to keep workers from joining unions
  101. Voluntarism
    Hoover advocated that volunteering and business action; the depression would not be that bad
  102. Private relief
    • Community chest
    • Charitable agencies dispense money to people who really needed it
    • Worked with short depressions where not many out of work
    • Didn’t work well in Great Depression
  103. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    Thought that if bail out biggest corporations, the money would trickle down to the people that needed it
  104. Trickledown
    • Money given to high corporations to produce jobs
    • Corporation pay worker for job
    • Worker use money for essential items like food
    • Smaller business get paid
    • And the cycle continues, going from the big to small
  105. Bonus Expeditionary Force
    • Veterans wanted bonuses early so marched to Washington
    • Hoover sent in armed forces and told them peaceful
    • They disobeyed and brought guns, Calvary, etc.
    • Camp was burned down
  106. Banking crisis
    • People panic thinking banking is going to fail
    • Go to bank to withdraw all money, along with tons of other concerned members
    • Called a bank run
    • Bank did run out of money, and closed
    • People lost lots of money
  107. NRA
    • National Recovery Administration
    • Reduce/eliminate price competition
    • Didn’t work
    • Prices cheaper in other places
    • Challenged in the Supreme Court
  108. FDIC
    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    • Insured bank deposits up to 2500 and prevented bank from making bad investments
  109. CCC
    • Civilian Conservation Corps
    • Young men to do reforestation and conservation work
    • Help the national infrastructure
  110. TVA
    • Tennessee Valley Authority
    • Control power and rivers in the Tennessee Valley
  111. FHA
    • Federal Housing Administration
    • Refinanced home mortgages
  112. WPA
    • Works Progress Administration
    • Employed about 1/3 of the nation on various tasks such as buildings, parks, bridges, roads, etc
  113. Liberty League
    When republican business leaders and conservative democrats tried to fight new deal programs because they were reckless spending and socialist reforms
  114. Neo-populism
    • People who thought the New Deal programs were too conservative
    • They took it a lot more liberal – Share the Wealth Society
  115. Social Security
    • Created by the 2nd New Deal
    • Old age pensions
    • Milestone in the creation of American welfare state
  116. Wagner Act
    • Upheld the right of industrial workers to form unions
    • Formed the National Labor Relations Board
  117. CIO
    • Congress of Industrial Organization
    • Steel Workers, mine workers, etc
  118. Court-packing
    • When Roosevelt tried to set an age limit on the Supreme Court to appoint extra judges that would pass his acts
    • Roosevelt lost popularity
  119. Roosevelt Recession
    • When Roosevelt tried to balance the budget and cut back on New Deal programs funding. The economy turned back into slight depression.
    • Roosevelt lost popularity
  120. Keynesianism
    Fiscal management and deficit spending to increase public spending
  121. Fascism
    • Central, authoritarian government
    • Dictator government
    • Extreme nationalism
    • Government is always right
  122. Nye Committee
    • Committee formed by Gerald Nye to investigate how US enter WWI
    • Found out that banks and arms manufactures tricked President Wilson
    • For Isolation in WWII
  123. Neutrality Acts
    • Made it so US could not trade with warring countries and Americans travelling on those ships were at their own risk
    • Cash and carry policy
  124. Committee to Defend America First
    Were for isolation/neutrality/internationalists of US in WWII.  They wanted to defend US and not worry about what was overseas.
  125. Lend-Lease Act
    • FDR’s way around Neutrality Acts if we lent something to get it back at end of war
    • Leases guns and other supplies to Britain
    • Only if success was vital to US
  126. GI Bill
    Provided veterans with education, housing, expenses other things if or were in armed forces
  127. Grand Alliance
    • Between US, UK, and USSR
    • FDR, Stalin, and Churchill
    • Also known as the Big 3
  128. Unconditional Surrender
    FDR, Stalin, and Churchill agreed that they will fight Germany and Japan until complete surrender.  They didn’t want to settle like WWI. No separate peace
  129. Europe First
    The Big 3 decided to fight in Europe before focusing on Japan.  Britain was crucial to American success so they needed to take off some of the pressure of them. Also, Soviet Union needed help.
  130. United Nations
    Security council that replaced the league of nations
  131. Strategic Bombing
    • Trying to bomb infrastructure important to the economy like bridges and roads along with factories
    • Didn’t want to bomb civilians
    • Technology not good enough, so ended up destroying entire towns
  132. Operations Research
    Made the difference in WWII due to fact that technology was obsolete at the start of the war
  133. Island hopping
    The idea of taking a couple of islands in the Pacific, then skipping a few, then taking a few more. This left unwarred territory to drop the Atomic Bomb on, along with kept the enemy off guard.
  134. Firebombing
    • An idea of Strategic bombing, but instead of exploding, set things on fire.
    • Included Napalm.
  135. Manhattan Project
    • The project developing the Atomic Bomb.
    • Kept secret.
    • Dropped on Hiroshima and Nagaski
  136. Little Steel Formula
    Workers promised not to strike in exchange for employers to allow unionizations
  137. Executive Order 8802
    • Issued by FDR to stop a march on Washington
    • Said government could not discriminate
    • Language later used in civil right legislation
  138. Internment Camps
    • Where the Japanese-Americans were forced to go after the start of WWII
    • Had to take Loyalty oaths
    • Usually in remote places