cancer

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Author:
servinggod247
ID:
286432
Filename:
cancer
Updated:
2014-10-20 18:44:12
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pathophysiology
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pathophysiology
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pathophysiology
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  1. cancer cells activate _______ to restore and maintain ____________ so cells can divide over and over again
    • telomerAse
    • telomeres
  2. wasting, emaciation, anorexia, and early satiety is what?
    cacnexia
  3. micro RNA's that can act as ______ or tumor suppressor genes is epigentics
    oncogenes
  4. most relevant carcinogens produced by
    cooking
  5. addition of methyl group to cystine ring to silence tumor suppressor genes and is astagein epigenetics
    methylation
  6. smoke exhaled by the smoker is?
    main stream
  7. repletion of erythrocyte building block depletion or destruction of bone marrow where RBC's are synthesized leads to what is cancer patients?
    anemia
  8. repletion of what and destruction of what causes anemia?
    • erythrolyte bulding blocks¬†
    • bone marrow-where RBC's are made
  9. at ends of each chromosome, block unlimited cell division
    telomeres
  10. what is the most common mutation?
    P53 gene
  11. ACTH suggests what?
    pituitary adenomas
  12. increases risk for mestotheilioma and lung CA
    asbetous
  13. Radon from decay of _____ trapped in houses
    uranium
  14. how can CA cells invade into lympth and vascular system?
    can travel in blood by attaching to platelets
  15. what is the first step in metastasis
    detachment from origin by loosing adhesion
  16. CA cells must overcome multiple ______ ______ to be able to spread, survive and reproduce
    anatomic barriers
  17. in carcinogenesis methylation of DNA shuts off genes without mutation is known as what?s
    siliencing
  18. in carcinogenesis inactivates tumor suppressor genes by loss of what?
    heterozygosity (loss of one gene copy)
  19. ability to develop in particular ways related to the environment setting
    developmental plasticity
  20. loss of cellular differentiation or specialization loses ability to function and control its growth and division
    anaplasia
  21. independence form normal cellular controles
    transformation (autonomy )
  22. _____ _______ increase circulating levels of insulin and increase insulin like growth factor biologic activity
    adipose cells
  23. pain related to necrosis, direct pressure or obstruction occurs in what?
    bone metastasis
  24. what has to be accessible for surgical therapy to take place for a cancer patient?
    neoplasm
  25. ability to develop in particular ways related to the enviroment or setting
    developmental plasticity
  26. in radiation the challenge is to eradicate ______ cells w/o producing excessive ________ andaroid damage to normal structures
    neoplastic toxicity
  27. chemotherapy's main goal is to kill cells that are undergoing what?
    mitosisand cytokinesis
  28. examples of pneotypic effects of epigeneric changes
    DES and breast cancer before 40 years
  29. histone modification of _______ is a stage of epigentics
    chromatin
  30. tumor cell markers are produced by
    cancer cells
  31. AFP suggests what?
    hepatic or germ cell CA
  32. benign fibrous connective tissue?
    fibroma
  33. benign lymphoid tissue
    infections mononucleosis
  34. benign nerve tissue
    neuroma
  35. benign glandular epithelial tissue
    adenoma
  36. malignant + glandular epithelial tissue
    adenocarcinoma
  37. preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin
    carcinoma in situ (CIS)
  38. malignant fibrous connective tissue
    fibrosarcoma
  39. malignant + lymphoid tissue
    lymphoma
  40. malignant nerve tissue
    nerogenic sarcoma
  41. tumor cell marker are found on tumor plasma membranes or in
    blood, spinal fluid, urine
  42. PSA suggests what?
    prostate cancer
  43. tumor supressor genes produce ______ that normally inhibit cells division or oppose action of an oncogene that can transform or normal cell into a cancerous cell when inherited or activated by a virus
    proteins
  44. in carcinogenesis inactivates tumor suppressor genes by loss of what?
    heterozygosity (loss of one gene copy)
  45. unlimited lifespan continue to devide
    immortal
  46. ______ _______ period preceds onset of adult cancer
    long latency
  47. variable size and shape
    pleomorphism
  48. loss of cellular differentation or specialization loses ability to function and controls its growth and division
    anaplasia
  49. what puts you at risk for more cancer?h
    higher BMI
  50. toxic, mutogenic, and carcinogenic chemicals
    xenobrotics
  51. changes in genes collaborative with environmental lifestyle factors to cause development of CA. changes are ______ and _________ heritable
    • mitotically¬†
    • meiotically
  52. hyperglycemia, cytokines IL-6, interferon and TNF causes what?
    metablic alterations associated with tissue loss
  53. smoke from the burning end of the cigarett is
    side stream
  54. what is the most important cause of cancer
    cigarette smoking
  55. phenotypic effects of ___________ changes during development may need long latency periods
    epigenetic
  56. what follows anemia in cancer patients
    • leukopenia
    • thrombocytopenia
  57. what has to be accessible for surgical therapy to take place for a cancer patient?
    neoplasm
  58. P53 gene causes resistance to _______ or self destruction mechanism
    apoptosis
  59. goal is to kill cells that are undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis
    chemo
  60. pain related to necrosis, direct pressure or obstruction occurs in what?
    bone metastasis
  61. in carcinogenesis unmasks mutations in what?
    recessive genes
  62. independence from normal cellular controls
    transormation ( autonomy)
  63. ______ ______ increase circulating levels of insulin and increase insulin like growth factor biologic activity
    adipose cells
  64. as diversity increases, number of cells in CA _________ increases with new abilities that facilitate metastasis
    mass
  65. in carcinogensis activates what?
    oncogenes
  66. causes 50-60 % of cervical CA
    HPV 16 from STD
  67. what is liked to leukemia in snoemakers, workers in rubber cement and dyeing industries
    benzol inhalation
  68. challenge is to eradicate neoplastic cell without producing excessive toxicity and avoid damage to normal structure
    radiation
  69. in what stage of mitosis do you want chemotherapy to interrupt
    interphase
  70. directly irradiated cells can lead to genetic effects in _____ cell or ______ cells even though they retrieved to ionizing radiation exposure
    bystander/ innocent
  71. UV radiation induces released of ________ in epidermis reducting immunity to skin cancer
    TNF
  72. adipose cells increase circulating levels of insulin and increases insulin like growth factor biologic activity, whats another way to saying this?
    influences synthesis of sex steroids
  73. what is the most significant cause of death in malignancies
    infection
  74. useful and definitive when neoplasm is accessible and has not spread beyond limits of surgical incision
    surgical therapy
  75. ability to develop in particular ways related to the enviroment or setting
    developmental plasticity
  76. in carcinogenesis unmasks mutations in what
    recessive genes
  77. potent DNA damaging agent that causes double strand breaks
    ionizing radiation

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