Ch17T1-4

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Author:
aphy101
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286438
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Ch17T1-4
Updated:
2015-04-05 19:44:28
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profmwinston
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Chapter 17 Topics 1-4 Digestive
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  1. ´╗┐What are the 5 functions of the digestive system?
    1) Digestion 2) Ingestion 3) Propulsion 4) Absorption 5) Defecation
  2. The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb.
    Digestion
  3. What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?
    Mechanical breaks large pieces into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition; Chemical breaks down food into simpler chemicals
  4. A muscular tube that passes throughout the body's central cavity, extending from the mouth to the anus, and has several accessory organs, which release secretions into it.
    Alimentary Canal
  5. List the 8 organs of the alimentary canal.
    1) Mouth 2) Pharynx 3) Esophagus 4) Stomach 5) Small Intestine 6) Large Intestine 7) Rectum 8) Anus
  6. This organ performs mechanical breakdown of food; begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates.
    Mouth
  7. This organ connects the mouth with the esophagus, it functions in swallowing.
    Pharynx
  8. This organ is performs peristalsis to push food to the stomach.
    Esophagus
  9. This organ secretes acid and enzymes; mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins.
    Stomach
  10. This organ mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice; final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules; main site of nutrient absorption.
    Small Intestine
  11. This tubular organ absorbs ingested water to form and store feces.
    Large Intestine
  12. This organ regulates the elimination of feces.
    Rectum
  13. This organ ends the alimentary canal, it is also the end of and is the opening of the anal canal, and has 2 sphincter muscles that guard it.
    Anus
  14. List the 4 accessory organs of the digestive system that release secretions into the alimentary canal.
    1) Salivary Glands 2) Liver 3) Gall Bladder 4) Pancreas
  15. These accessory organs secrete saliva, which contains enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates.
    Salivary Glands
  16. This accessory organ produces bile, which emulsifies fat.
    Liver
  17. This accessory organ stores bile and introduces it into the small intestine.
    Gall Bladder
  18. This accessory organ secretes a digestive juice that contains digestive enzymes and bicarbonate ions, into the small intestine.
    Pancreas
  19. List the 4 layers of the alimentary canal from the inside out.
    1) Mucosa (mucous membrane) 2) Submucosa 3) Muscularis 4) Serosa (serous layer)
  20. This layer of the alimentary canal is located as the inner lining; its function is to protect the tissues beneath it, and carries on secretion and absorption.
    Mucosa (or Mucous Membrane)
  21. This layer of the alimentary canal nourishes surrounding tissues and carries away absorbed substances.
    Submucosa
  22. This layer of the alimentary canal has 2 muscle layers when its circular fibers contract, the diameter of the tube decreases, when its longitudinal fibers contract, the tube shortens, together, they provide movements associated with digestion and absorption of food.
    Muscular Layer
  23. This layer of the alimentary canal is the outer covering of the tube; it moistens and lubricates the outside of the organ so the organs of the abdominal cavity slide freely against one another.
    Serosa (or Serous Layer)
  24. This means the passageway of the alimentary canal.
    Lumen
  25. What are the 2 types of movements in the alimentary canal?
    1) Mixing 2) Propelling 
  26. This type of movement in the alimentary canal occurs when smooth muscles in small segments of the tube contract rhythmically; the purpose is to mix foods with the digestive juices that the mucosa creates.
    Mixing Movement
  27. This movement occurs in the small intestine that aids in mixing by alternatively contracting and relaxing the smooth muscle in segments of the organ.
    Segmentation
  28. This type of movement in the alimentary canal include a wavelike motion called peristalsis, in which a ring of contraction occurs in the wall of the tube and moves progressively along its length, and at the same time, receptive relaxation occurs in the wall of the tube just ahead, and the wave pushes the contents of the tube in it.
    Propelling Movement
  29. List the 2 plexuses involved in controlling the digestive system.
    1) Submucosal Plexus 2) Myenteric Plexus
  30. This plexus is important in controlling secretions by the gastrointestinal tract.
    Submucosal Plexus
  31. This plexus is more extensive and controls gastrointestinal motility.
    Myenteric Plexus
  32. What is the difference in the effects of the PNS and the SNS on the activities of the digestive system?
    The PNS impulses increase activities; The SNS impulses decrease activities

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