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Where does energy come from?
- Energy comes from the sun and flows through out all living things on earth.
- The sun’s energy is the energy source for bio-,fossil, and food fuels
Bio, fossil, food fuels
- Fossil fuels - fuel burned through engines, Bonds break between the long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the gasoline molecule
- Food fuels - Provides cellular energy to the living organism
- Bio fuels - ?
What are the two ways to capture energy and convert energy?
- Photosynthesis - Plants capture energy from the sun energy is stored in the chemical bonds of sugars and other food molecules
- Cellular Respiration - Organisms release energy stored in chemical bonds of food molecules they eat, uses released energy as fuel
What are the two types of energy?
- Kinetic energy - the energy of moving objects, heat and light
- Potential energy - Stored energy or the capacity to do work that results from an object’s location or position
- •Chemical energy - energy stored in chemical bonds
What happens in energy transformation?
Energy is captured and converted, amount of energy available to do work decreases some energy is released as heat
What are the laws of thermodynamics?
- 1st law - Energy can NEVER be created or
- destroyed, energy can only change from one form to another
- 2nd law - Every conversion of energy includes the transformation of some energy into heat, heat is almost completely useless to living organisms
What is ATP and ADP?
ATP and ADP- Free-floating rechargeable batteries in all living cells, chief energy currency of the cell
What is Cellular Respiration?
The process that allows living organisms to fuel their actions, high energy bonds of sugar and other energy-rich molecules are broken, releasing the energy that went into creating them
What is ecology, and what are the four sub sets of it?
Study of interactions between organisms and their environments at various levels
•Individuals - Individual organisms and how they respond biochemically, physiologically, and behaviorally to their environments
•Populations - Groups of individual organisms of the same species that interbreed with each other
- •Communities - Populations of different
- species that interact with each other within a locale
•Ecosystems - All living organisms and non-living elements that interact in a particular area, highest level of organization in ecology
What is population ecology and what is a population size and growth rates?
- Study of how populations interact with their environments
- population size - How populations are influenced by other organisms and environmental factors
- growth rates - Patterns of growth within the population, the change in the number of individuals in a population
- over a specific period of time
Density Dependent Factors
Density Independent Factors
Maximum Sustainable Yield
- exponential growth - Population grows at a rate proportional to its size, the bigger the population, the faster it grows
- logistic growth - Much better approximation than exponential growth of how populations grow in the real world
- carrying capacity - The ceiling on a population’s growth imposed by the limitation of resources for a particular habitat over a period of time, population growth is limited by the available resources
- Density Dependent Factors - Reduced food supplies, due to competition, loss of places to live and breed, due to competition
- Density Independent Factors - Natural or human-caused environmental calamities that limit population growth weather or geology based disasters
- Population Oscillations - Some populations will cycle between periods of rapid
- growth and shrinkage
- Maximum Sustainable Yield - as many individuals are removed from a large population without impairing its growth rate, individuals are utilized or harvested
Slow, Gradual Reproductive Investment
Fast, Intensive Reproductive Investment
- Life histories - Strategies for reproducing vary widely from species to species
- a. Big bang reproduction - Reaches sexual maturity at one year, mates intensely over a three week period, males die shortly after mating period, females usually dies after weaning the first litter
- b. slow, gradual reproductive investment - reaches sexual maturity in one year, and has an offspring about once a year
- c. Fast, Intensive reproductive investment - reaches sexual maturity in one month and reproduces six to ten offspring
- Survivor ship curves - The proportion of individuals of a particular age that are alive in a population
- Type 1 - long lives, few predators, and invests huge amounts of time in one to two offspring
- Type 2 - likelihood of dying at any age is the same
- Type 3 - produce a few offspring and spend little to no time raising them
Evolutionary Trade Offs
a.Reproduction and Survival
b.Reproduction and Growth
c.Number and Size of Offspring
- Evolutionary Trade Off - When resources are limited, populations must increase allocation to one of the following
- a. Reproduction and survival - big bang reproducers make and exceptionally high investment in reproducing then die off quickly
- b. Reproduction and Growth - for plants and trees, they grow more when producing seeds than without
- c. size determines the amount and strength of offspring
Evolution of Aging
Evolution of Aging - Ecology influences the evolution of aging in a population
Low mortality risk environment
populations slowly aging, long lived individuals evolve
High mortality risk environment
population of early aging, short lived individuals evolve
High hazard factor
Low hazard factor
- High Hazard factor - Relatively high risk of death at each age, individuals tend to reproduce earlier, earlier aging, shorter life spans
- Low Hazard Factors - relatively low risk of death at each age, individuals tend to reproduce later, later aging, longer life
Show the number of individuals in a population within each age group at one point in time
Industrialized and Developing Countries
- Industrialized countries - Age pyramids appear more rectangular in shape, low birth rates and low death rates in older individuals
- Developing Countries - Age pyramids appear triangular in shape, high birth rates and high death rates in older individuals
occurs with the industrialization of countries, characterized by, initial reduction in the death rate, followed later by a reduction in birth rate
What is influencing carrying capacity?
expanding to new habitats, increasing agricultural productivity, and being capable of living at higher densities
What is an ecosystem?
Ecosystem is a community of biological organisms and non living components in the environment
What is a biotic environment?
a part of an ecosystem that has living organisms
What is a physical environment?
The chemical resources and physical conditions within an area
What are physical conditions?
Temperature, humidity, salinity, energy sources, and moisture
What are the two types of biomes?
- Terrestrial biome - is a large ecosystem that covers a large geographic area
- Aquatic biome - large ecosystem that is in large areas of water
In a biome, what is primary productivity and primary producers?
Primary productivity is the amount of organic matter created from photosynthesis, the primary producers are the organisms that carry out the photosynthesis
Distribution of solar energy
When the solar energy hits the earth at the equator, the heat spreads out to different parts of the earth
- 1)Solar heat hits the earth
- 2)Warms the air
- 3)Heated air rises, then cools as it gets farther from the warm earth
- 4)Cold air holds less moisture than warm air
- 5)Clouds form
- 6)Rain falls
when air moves closer to the earth's surface it gets warmer and can hold more moisture, so it does not rain much in a desert
Rain shadow effect
When air falls on the back side of mountains, the air becomes warm and holds more moisture. This prevents rainfall and makes the rain shadow effect at bases of mountains
Able to absorb more solar energy, leads to higher temperatures and having strong winds near the bottom of buildings
What are ocean circulation patterns?
Several large circulations of water in the ocean, due to wind, temperature, the moon, earth's rotation and salinity
convert sunlight into energy using photosynthesis
Animals that eat plants (herbivores), able to harness energy through chemical bonds of plants
Animals that eat other animals (carnivores), get energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
carnivores that eat other carnivores
bacteria, fungi, and detritivores, they break down organic material
what are chemical cycles and what are the three different kinds?
- chemical cycles are when chemicals are captured from the atmosphere, soil or water by organisms from the grounds
- a. carbon - plants take carbon from the atmosphere and moves through the food chain
- b. nitrogen - found in atmosphere, and is used to build amino acids
- phosphorus - found in soil and used in ATP and ADP
an organisms place in a community
the space on organism requires, the type of food it needs and when it reproduces
Fundamental niche vs realized niche
- fundamental - full range of environmental conditions that an organism can live in
- realized niche - environmental conditions that an organism is actually living in
Competition, competitive exclusion, and resource partitioning
- Competition is when two niches overlap, and compete with two possible out comes
- a. competitive exclusion - one species drives the other to extinction in that area
- b. resource partitioning - when the two species adapt to a new environment
a symbiotic relationship where one organism is benefited while the other is harmed
Ecto vs endoparasites
ectoparasites live on the outside, endoparasites live on the inside
What are the two kinds of beneficial specie interaction?
- Commensalism - when one species benefits and the other is not helped of harmed
- Mutualism - is when both species benefit from each other
What is succession and what are the two kinds?
- Succession is the change of a species composition of a community over time
- Primary - begins after a disturbance and leaves area barren with no life
- Secondary - begins after a disturbance with soil and life present, the area and organisms develop over time
Key stone speices
organism that have an influence of an area when other organisms are not around, an example is a star fish
A genetic change in a population
A concept that the species who survive are the ones who are the strongest and better equipped
created theory of evolution, studied finches and fossils on the galapagos islands and saw small changes and differences in finches skeletal structure
- an evolution occurs in a population when the allele frequencies change.
- an allele is the alternative version of a gene
Four Mechanisms of evolution
- Mutation - an alteration in the base pair of DNA cells, causes damage to it, could be cause by random or environmental factors
- Migration - change in allele frequencies when a whole population moves from one area to another
- Natural Selection - comes in three ways: variation of trait, heritability, and differential reproductive success
- Genetic Drift - random changes in allele frequency within a population, founder effect is when small portion leaves population, bottleneck effect is when a population is reduced to a small size very quickly
predicts how each common genotype in a population will be
Measure of the relative amount of reproduction of an individual with a particular phenotype, as compared with the reproductive output of individuals with alternative phenotypes
3 elements of fitness
- 1) an individual's fitness is measured relative to other genotypes and phenotypes in the population
- 2) fitness depends on the type of environment the individual lives in
- 3) fitness depends on the reproductive success compared to other organisms in a population
the process in which an organism becomes better equipped to live in a specific environment
Natural selection does not lead to the creation of the perfect organism, what are the three reasons?
- 1) Environment can change more quickly than natural selection can adapt organism to them
- 2) All possible alleles are not produced by mutation
- 3) There is not always a single optimum adaptation for an environment
Individuals with one extreme from the range of variation in the population have higher fitness
The average value of a trait remains the same while extreme versions of the trait are selected against
Individuals with extreme phenotypes have the highest fitness
Allows scientist to reconstruct an organism from a long time ago
Observing geographic patterns of species distributions helps us to understand the evolutionary histories of populations
Comparative anatomy and embryology
Reveals common evolutionary origins between different groups of organisms
all organisms have the same genetic code
allows scientists to observe evolution occur