Nutrition Ch 5

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Nutrition Ch 5
2014-10-23 19:39:50
Lifespan Wellness
Exam #3
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  1. Rich sources of antioxidants
    beverages: coffee, green and black tea, red wine

    fruits: bilberries, black currants, wild strawberries, blackberries, goji berries, cranberries, dried apples, dried plums, dried apricots, prunes

    vegetables: kale, red and green chili

    spices and herbs: cloves, peppermint, allspice, cinnamon, oregano, thyme, sage, rosemary

    • other: dark chocolate, walnuts and pecans with pellicle
  2. Characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins
    Sources: the fat and oil portion of foods

    Absorption: with fat encased in chylomicrons that enter the lymphatic system before circulating in the bloodstream

    Transportation through the blood: attach to protein carriers because fat is not soluble in watery blood

    When consumed in excess of need: are stored-primarily in the liver and adipose tissue

    Safety of consuming high intakes through supplements: can be toxic; this applies primarily to vitamins A and D; large doses of vitamins E and K are considered relatively nontoxic

    Frequency of intake: generally do not have to be consumed daily because the body can retrieve them from storage as needed
  3. Characteristics of water-soluble vitamins
    Sources: the watery portion of foods

    Absorption: directly into the bloodstream

    Transportation through the blood: move freely through the watery environment of blood and within cells

    When consumed in excess of need: are excreted in the urine, although some tissues may hold limited amounts of certain vitamins

    Safety of consuming high intakes through supplements: are generally considered nontoxic, although side effects can occur from consuming very large doses of vitamin B6 over a prolonged period

    Frequency of intake: must be consumed daily because there is no reserve in storage
  4. Vitamin A

  5. Vitamin A

    -Retinol: beef, liver, milk, butter, cheese, cream, egg yolk, fortified milk, margarine, and ready-to-eat cereals

    -Beta-carotene: "greens" (turnip, dandelion, beet, collard, mustard), spinach, kale, broccoli, carrots, peaches, pumpkin, red peppers, sweet potatoes, winter squash, mango, apricots, cantaloupe
  6. Vitamin A

    • The formation of visual purple, which enables the eye to adapt to dim light
    • Normal growth and development of bones and teeth
    • The formation and maintenance of mucosal epithelium to maintain healthy functioning of skin and membranes, hair, gums, and various glands
    • Important role in immune function
  7. Vitamin A 

    • -Slow recovery of vision after flashes of bright light at night is the first ocular symptom; can progress to xerophthalmia and blindness
    • -Bone growth ceases; bone shape changes; enamel-forming cells in the teeth malfunction; teeth crack and tend to decay
    • -Skin becomes dry, scaly, rough, and cracked; keratinization or hyperkeratosis develops; mucous membrane cells flatten and harden: eyes become dry (xerosis); irreversible drying and hardening of the cornea can result in blindness
    • -Decreased saliva secretion⇢difficulty chewing, swallowing⇢anorexia
    • -Decreased mucous secretion of the stomach and intestines⇢impared digestion and absorption⇢diarrhea, increased excretion of nutrients
    • -Impaired immune system functioning⇢increased susceptibility to respiratory, urinary tract, and vaginal infections increases
  8. Vitamin A

    • Headaches, vomiting, double vision, hair loss, bone abnormalities, liver damage, which may be reversible or fatal
    • Can cause birth defects during pregnancy
  9. Vitamin D
    Calciferol; Cholecalciferol
  10. Vitamin D

    Sunlight on the skin

    Cod liver oil, oysters, mackerel, most fish, egg yolks, fortified milk, some ready-to-eat cereals, and margarine
  11. Vitamin D

    Maintains serum calcium concentrations by:

    • Stimulating GI absorption
    • Stimulating the release of calcium from the bones
    • Stimulating calcium absorption from the kidneys
  12. Vitamin D

    Rickets (in infants and children):

    • Retarded bone growth
    • Bone malformations (bowed legs)
    • Enlargement of ends of long bones (knock-knees)
    • Deformities of the ribs (bowed, with beads or knobs)
    • Delayed closing of the fontanel⇢rapid enlargement of the head
    • Decreased serum calcium and/or phosphorus
    • Malformed teeth; decayed teeth
    • Protrusion of the abdomen related to relaxation of the abdominal muscles
    • Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone

    Osteomalacia (in adults)

    • Softening of the bones⇢deformities, pain, and easy fracture
    • Decreased serum calcium and/or phosphorus, increased alkaline phosphatase
    • Involuntary muscle twitching and spasms
  13. Vitamin D

    Kidney stones, irreversible kidney damage, muscle and bone weakness, excessive bleeding, loss of appetite, headache, excessive thirst, calcification of soft tissue (blood vessels, kidneys, heart, lungs), death
  14. Vitamin E
  15. Vitamin E

    Vegetable oils, margarine, salad dressing, other foods made with vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, dark green vegetables, whole grains, fortified cereals
  16. Vitamin E 

    Acts as an antioxidant to protect vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids from being destroyed

    Protects cell membranes
  17. Vitamin E

    Increased red blood cell hemolysis 

    In infants, anemia, edema, and skin lesions
  18. Vitamin E

    Relatively nontoxic

    High doses enhance action of anticoagulant medications
  19. Vitamin K
  20. Vitamin K

    Bacterial synthesis

    Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, Swiss chard, spinach, loose leaf lettuce, carrots, green beans, asparagus, eggs
  21. Vitamin K

    Synthesis of blood clotting proteins and a bone protein that regulates blood calcium
  22. Vitamin K 

  23. Vitamin K

    No symptoms have been observed from excessive intake of vitamin K
  24. Vitamin B1
  25. Vitamin B1

    Whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals, liver, nuts, wheat germ, pork, dried peas and beans
  26. Vitamin B1

    Coenzyme in energy metabolism

    Promotes normal appetite and nervous system functioning
  27. Vitamin B1


    • Mental confusion, decrease in short-term memory
    • Fatigue, apathy (lack of interest, enthusiasm, concern)
    • Pheripheral paralysis
    • Muscle weakness and wasting
    • Painful calf muscles
    • Anorexia, weight loss
    • Edema
    • Enlarged heart
    • Sudden death from heart failure
  28. Vitamin B1

    No toxicity symptoms reported
  29. Vitamin B2
  30. Vitamin B2

    Milk and other dairy products; whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals; liver, eggs, meat, spinach
  31. Vitamin B2

    Coenzyme in energy metabolism

    Aids in the conversion of tryptophan into niacin
  32. Vitamin B2

    • Dermatitis
    • Cheilosis
    • Glossitis
    • Photophobia
    • Reddening of the cornea
  33. Vitamin B2

    No toxicity symptoms reported
  34. Vitamin B3
  35. Vitamin B3

    All protein foods, whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals
  36. Vitamin B3

    Coenzyme in energy metabolism

    Promotes normal nervous system functioning
  37. Vitamin B3

    Pellagra: 4 Ds

    • Dermatitis (bilateral and symmetrical) and glottis
    • Diarrhea
    • Dementia, irritability, mental confusion⇢psychosis
    • Death, if untreated
  38. Vitamin B3

    (from supplements/drugs)

    Flushing, liver damage, gastric ulcers, low blood pressure, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
  39. Vitamin B6
  40. Vitamin B6

    Meats, fish, poultry, fruits, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, nuts, dried peas and beans
  41. Vitamin B6

    Coenzyme in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism

    Helps convert tryptophan to niacin

    Helps produce insulin, hemoglobin, myelin sheaths, and antibodies
  42. Vitamin B6

    Dermatitis, cheilosis, glossitis, abnormal brain wave pattern, convulsions, and anemia
  43. Vitamin B6

    Depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches; sensory neuropathy characteristics
  44. Folate
    Folic acid

  45. Folate

    Liver, okra, spinach, asparagus, dried peas and beans, seeds, orange juice; breads, cereals, and other grains are fortified with folic acid
  46. Folate

    Coenzyme in DNA synthesis; therefore vital for new cell synthesis and the transmission of inherited characteristics
  47. Folate

    Glossitis, diarrhea, macrocytic anemia, depression, mental confusion, fainting, fatigue
  48. Folate

    Too much can mask B12 deficiency
  49. Vitamin B12
  50. Vitamin B12

    Animal products: meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, milk, dairy products, eggs

    Some fortified foods
  51. Vitamin B12

    Coenzyme in the synthesis of new cells 

    Activates folate

    Maintains nerve cells

    Helps metabolize some fatty acids and amino acids
  52. Vitamin B12

    GI changes: glossitis, anorexia, indigestion, recurring diarrhea or constipation, and weight loss

    Macrocytic anemia: pallor, dyspnea, weakness, fatigue, and palpitations

    Neurologic changes: paresthesia of the hands and feet, decreased sense of the position, poor muscle coordination, poor memory, irritability, depression, paranoia, delirium, and hallucinations
  53. Vitamin B12

    No toxicity symptoms reported
  54. Vitamin B5
    Pantothenic Acid
  55. Pantothenic Acid

    Widespread in foods

    Meat, poultry, fish, whole-grain cereals, and dried peas and beans are among the best sources
  56. Pantothenic Acid

    Part of coenzyme A used in energy metabolism
  57. Pathothenic Acid

    Rare; general failure of all body systems
  58. Pantothenic Acid

    No toxicity symptoms reported, although large doses may cause diarrhea
  59. Vitamin B7
  60. Biotin

    Widespread in foods

    Eggs, liver, milk, and dark green vegetables are among best choices

    Synthesized by GI flora
  61. Biotin

    Coenzyme in energy metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen formation
  62. Biotin

    Rare; anorexia, fatigue, depression, dry skin, heart abnormalities
  63. Biotin

    No toxicity symptoms reported
  64. Vitamin C
    Ascorbic Acid
  65. Vitamin C

    Citrus fruits and juices, red and green peppers, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, canteloupe, kiwifruit, mustard greens, strawberries, tomatoes
  66. Vitamin C

    Collagen synthesis


    Promotes iron absorption

    Involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids

    Thyroxin synthesis

    Immune system functioning
  67. Vitamin C

    Bleeding gums, pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin

    Scurvy, characterized by:

    • hemorrhaging
    • muscle degeneration
    • skin changes
    • delayed wound healing: reopening of old wounds
    • softening of the bones⇢malformations, pain, easy fractures
    • soft, loose teeth
    • anemia
    • increased susceptibility to infection
    • hysteria and depression
  68. Vitamin C

    Diarrhea, mild GI upset
  69. Phytochemical

    Potent antioxidant that may reduce the risk of prostate cancer and heart disease


    red fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, tomato products, red grapefruit, red peppers, watermelon
  70. Phytochemical

    Allyl sulfides
    Boost levels of naturally occuring enzymes that may help to maintain healthy immune system


    Garlic, onions, leeks, chives
  71. Phytochemical

    Isoflavones (genistein and daidzein)
    Antiestrogen activity, which may decrease the risk of estrogen-dependent cancers; may inhibit the formation of blood vessels that enable tumors to grow


    soybeans, soy flour, soy milk, tofu, other legumes
  72. Phytochemical

    Ellagic Acid
    May reduce the risk of certain cancers and decrease cholesterol levels 


    Red grapes, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, kiwifruit, currants
  73. Phytochemical

    Boosts levels of body enzymes that may destroy carcinogens


    Oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, and limes
  74. Phytochemical

    Polyphenols (catechins)
    May help to prevent DNA damage by neutralizing free radicals


    Onions, apples, tea, red wine, grapes, grape juice, strawberries, green tea
  75. Phytochemical

    Act as a phytoestrogen; may reduce the risk of certain kinds of cancer


    Flaxseed, whole grains
  76. Phytochemical

    Phytic Acid
    May inhibit oxidative reactions in the colon that produce harmful free radicals


    Whole wheat
  77. Phytochemical

    Acts as an anitoxidant; may reduce the risk of heart disease, age-related eye diseases, and cancer


    Kale, spinach, collard greens, kiwifruit, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Swiss chard, romaine
  78. Phytochemical

    May help prevent macular degeneration and certain types of cancer


    Corn, spinach, winter squash
  79. Phytochemical

    May reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer, and stroke by improving blood flow to the heart and brain and preventing blood clots


    red grapes, red grape juice, red wine
  80. Vitamins for

    Individuals Age 50 Years and Older
    Consume foods fortified with vitamin B12, such as fortified cereals, or dietary supplements. 

    Men and women older than age 50 years are urged to consume most of their RDA for vitamin B12 via fortified cereals or supplements because they may not adequately absorb adequate B12 from protein-bound sources
  81. Vitamins for 

    Women Capable of Becoming Pregnant
    Consume 400 micrograms daily of synthetic folic acid (from fortified foods and/or supplements) in addition to food forms of folate from a varied diet.

    Women who consume folic acid-fortified cereal do not need a supplement; in fact, they may be at risk for an excessive folic acid intake if they consume both. 

    Although fortified cereals only provide 400 micrograms of folic acid per serving, actual portion sizes eaten are usually much bigger
  82. Vitamins for

    Women Who Are Pregnant (including adolescents)
    Consume 600 micrograms/day of dietary folate equivalents from all sources (natural and synthetic)
  83. Vitamins in Food Groups:

    Thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, vitamin B6
  84. Vitamins in Food Groups:

    beta carotene, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, vitamin C
  85. Vitamins in Food Groups:

    beta carotene, folate, vitamin C
  86. Vitamins in Food Groups:

    Vitamin A, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B12, biotin
  87. Vitamins in Food Groups:

    Protein foods
    Niacin, vitamin B6, thiamin, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin E, vitamin D, panthothenic acid
  88. Supplement Labeling Lingo
    "High potency" at least to the FDA, means that at least two-thirds of the product's nutrients are provided at 100% of the DV. To most people, high potency means more than the DV

    "Advanced," "Complete," or "Maximum" formulas are not defined; manufacturers can use those terms as desired

    "Clinically proven" is also not defined

    "Mature" or "50+" formulas usually have less iron and vitamin K. While seniors do need less iron, the need for vitamin K does not decrease with aging. In fact, vitamin K may help prevent hip fractures. However, people using anticoagulants should strive for a consistent vitamin K intake.

    "Women's" formulas have 18 mg of iron, which is appropriate for premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women need around 8 mg, which is the same amount of iron as men need.

    "Energy" multivitamins may contain caffeine for "energy" or simply B vitamins based on the industry-promoted myth that B vitamins provide extra energy.
  89. Key concepts pg 118