____ refers to drying, or removal of water by natural or artificial means; used in food preservation; retards growth, but doesn't always kill.
If the phenol coefficient for an antimicrobial chemical is ____ that 1, it is less effective than the standard, phenol.
A ___ is a antimicrobial chemical used on inanimate objects such as counters, floors, etc.
In naming chemicals for microbial control, the ending ___ means it limits the growth of microbes.
In the US, radiation is approved to treat _____ Trichinella contamination.
____ is a moist heat physical control method; a temperature of 100°C for 10 minutes kills most microbes and inactivates most viruses, but does not destroy heat resistant forms such as endospores.
In the US, radiation is approved to treat ____ for E. coli contamination.
A ____ agent (AMA) is a chemical agent used to treat diseases caused by microbes.
____ (burning) is used to destroy soiled bandages and tissue specimens.
Hospital-acquired infections are termed____.
Joseph Lister introduced ____ techniques in medical procedures with the use of phenol-soaked rags in wounds and on surgical instruments.
The ____ ___ diffusion method is used to determine the effectiveness of antibiotics (or other antimicrobial chemicals) against bacteria.
The process of ____ reduces the number of pathogens until they are not a hazard; usually involving the use of antimicrobial chemicals.
A criterion used to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is that they are _____ in body fluids, enabling them to be distributed through the body via the bloodstream.
_____ is an antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis at a 70s ribosome by binding to the ribosome and preventing the attachment of the tRNA carrying the amino acid.
An ____ provides steam under pressure (121°C at 15-20 psi for 15-20 minutes) for sterilization of media and glassware.
The temperature in a ____ is -20°C; this prevents microbial growth, but doesn't kill all organisms.
A potential problem with a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent is that it may disturb the host's norma flora, leading to ____ infections produced by opportunists.
Antimicrobial agents that are effective against a wide variety of microbes are termed _____ spectrum; and lead to secondary infection caused by opportunists.
___ drugs resemble PABA (para-amino benzoic acid), and therefore compete with it for the active site on the enzyme; this inhibits the enzyme and the synthesis of essential folic acid.
When a host's norma flora is disrupted, secondary infection caused by ____ may develop.
Anibiotic resistance genes on plaids can be passed from one bacterium to another by conjugation, transduction, or _____ (picking up stray pieces of DNA from the environment).
_____ are disinfectants that are nontoxic enough to be used on skin.
____ light is a form of radiation that is of limited use because it cannot penetrate materials; it is used to reduce the number of organisms in wire, or on clean surfaces.
Anibiotic resistance genes on plaids can be passed from one bacterium to another by conjugation, transformation, or _____ (transferred by a bacteriophage).
Gas sterilization by ____ ___ has the highest rating for chemical control; used for plastics, pre-wrapped disposable items and other heat-sensitive objects.
An antimicrobial agent is considered effective if 90% of the bacterial population is killed with every ____ minutes of exposure.
______ (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters are used to filter the air in hospitals and are recommended for people with allergies.
Anibiotic resistance genes on plaids can be passed from one bacterium to another by transduction, transformation, or _____ (while joined by a sex pills).
____ is an antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis at the 70s ribosome by blocking the ribosome enzyme transferase from joining the new amino acid to the polypeptide chain
_____ is used for temperature-sensitive foods such as wine or milk; it eliminates pathogens and reduces the number of spoilage organisms, but it doesn't sterilize.
_____-_____ refers to the elimination rate of a drug from the body, and this dictates the frequency of dosage needed.
____ is an antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis at a 70's ribosome by blocking ribosome enzyme translocase; this freezes the ribosome position on the mRNA.
A criterion used to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is that they be non-____; this means they should not cause adverse reactions in the host.
____ radiation such as x-rays and γ-rays can be used to sterilize plastics, medications, and even foods; effective because they penetrate well.
_____ refers to killing all microbes present, so that even if they are transferred to a new medium they will not revive or reproduce; also refers to inactivation viruses.
____ is a physical control method that spa rates solids fem liquids by passage through a filter with tiny pores; does not sterilize unless the pore size is small enough to trap all organisms.
_____ _____ is an essential substance for all life forms; bacteria produce it from PABA; sulfa drugs interfere with the enzyme needed.
Simple ____ with plain soap and water is considered to be the single most important step in preventing the spread of many infectious disease.
The temperature in a ____ should range from 0-10°C (4°C average); this hinders microbial growth, but doesn't prevent it completely.
In the disk-plate (diffusion) method of determining antimicrobial activity of a substance, a ____ ____ ____ around the disk means the substance is effective.
Zone of Inhibition
If the phenol coefficient for an antimicrobial chemical is ____ than 1, it is more effective tha the standard, phenol.
In the US, radiation is approved to treat ____ for Salmonella contamination.
____ items are those that enter body tissues (needles, scalpels, biopsy forceps); the potential risk of infection is high.
____ is the precursor for folic acid; sulfa drugs compete with it for the active site on the enzyme.
An important criterion used to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is that they exhibit ____ toxicity, so they destroy or inhibit the microbe without affecting the host's cells.
Joseph Lister introduced aseptic technique in medicine with phenol (____ ____) used to reduce infection/gangrene in wounds and to sterilize surgical instruments.
Quinolones,AZT,Griseofuvin, and Mitomycin are all chemicals that in one way or another inhibit _____ acid synthesis.
Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Streptomycin are all antibiotics that in one way or another inhibit ____ synthesis at 70s ribosomes in bacteria.
Joseph Lister introduced aseptic technique in medicine with ____ (aka carbolic acid) used to reduce infection/gangrene in wounds and to sterilize surgical instruments.
A ____ agent is any chemical agent used to treat any disease, even cancer.
The ____ of activity refers to the range of microbes that are inhibited or killed by an antibiotic; it may be narrow or broad.
A criterion determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is that are ____ in body fluids, assuring constant and effective levels in the body.
A ____ is an individual whose normal flora includes a pathogen without experiencing symptoms of disease, and who can transmit the pathogen to other.
_____ us an antibiotic that inhibits an enzyme that forms peptide bonds in the bacterial cell wall, weakening it ; most effective against Gram-positive bacteria,
The ____ ____ for a microbial control chemical is established by comparing the chemical for the same length of time on the same organism under identical conditions, to phenol; it is calculated as a ratio of test chemical activity divided by phenol activity.
___ refers to freeze-drying; materials are rapidly frozen at temperatures well below 0°C, then vacuumed sealed to remove water, making them extremely lightweight.
Joseph ____ introduced aseptic technique in medicine with phenol (aka carbolic acid) used to reduce infection/gangrene in wounds and to sterilize surgical instruments.
___ items (stethoscope, bp cuff) only come into contact with the skin surface; the potential risk of infection is minimal.
_____ _____ refers to microbes that normally live in the body without producing harm.
One of the most resistant microbes is the tuberculosis bacillus, ____, with waxy lipids embedded in its cell wall.
____ refers to disinfection with includes toxins.
To set up a disk plate diffusion test, a solid ____ of bacteria is inoculated on a sterile agar plate and then disks containing various chemicals to be tested are placed on the surface.
Bacillus and Clostridium are resistant microbes because they can produce ____ in harsh environments.
Nitrites and ____ are food preservatives that inhibit Clostridium botulinum endospores from germinating.
_____ effects of overlapping antibiotic therapy usually results in much less resistance in the bacteria.
High salt or sugar concentrations provide a method of food preservation because they increase the cells external ____ pressure; the cell dehydrates and dies.
___ items (endoscope, proctoscope, respiratory equipment) come into contact with mucous membranes, but do not penetrate body tissues; the potential risk of infection is moderate.
____ refers to the substantially reduced microbe population (such as dealing with food/eating utensils or toilet seats) that meets accepted health standards; a clean appearance is expected; this procedure doesn't sterilize, but reduces the microbial population to safe levels.
___ refers to the use of chemical agents to treat disease.
____ colonies growing within a zone of inhibition indicate cells of the original ovulation that were already resistant to the chemical.
____ delays food spoilage by inhibiting the growth of microbes; methods include lower temperature, lower pH, desiccation, and chemical additives.
____ inhibition occurs when a molecule other than the substrate fits into the active site of the enzyme and blocks it.
___ are amphipathic antibiotics that work by binding to bacterial cell membrane proteins and altering permeability; resistance is rare.
____ are small loops of bacterial DAN that often contain resistance genes (R-factors); these may be passed from one bacterium to another by conjugation, transformation or transduction.
One disadvantage of antimicrobial therapy is that the microbes may become _____; they may do this by producing enzymes that destroy the chemical, but mutation, or by receiving plasmids containing resistance genes.
_____ is a dry heat method of microbial control that involves burring; used to sterilize inoculating loops.
A ____ spectrum antibiotic requires identification of the pathogen.
In naming chemicals for microbial control, the ending ____ means it kills microbes.