Science Chapter 11

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Science Chapter 11
2015-01-23 14:53:46

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  1. Electric circuit
    a closed Path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow

  2. Voltaic cell
    a source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a conducting solution
  3. battery
    a connection between two or more cells

  4. electrode
    one of two metals terminals in a cell or battery

    • Fact: Electrode is a pokemon! It is electric type (wow wouldn't have guessed that)
  5. Electrolyte
    a solution or paste that conducts charge
  6. dry cell
    a cell that contains an electrolyte made of a paste

  7. wet cell
    A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte

  8. Primary cell
    a cell that can be used only once

    -usually a regular battery
  9. secondary cell
    a cell that can be recharged

    -usually in mobile devices
  10. fuel cell
    a cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the cell
  11. solar cell
    a cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy

    • -used to generate electricity
    • -usually in large groups of panels called solar fields
  12. terminal
    a position on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit
  13. Switch
    a control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected

  14. open circuit
    a circuit that contains a gap or break

  15. electric current
    a measure of the number or charged particles that pass by a point in an electric circuit

    -measured in amperes (A)

    • series - It=I1=I2=I3
    • parallel It=I1+I2+I3

  16. Coulomb (C)
    the quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25x1018 electrons
  17. Ampere (A)
    the unit of electric current equivalent to one coulomb per second
  18. electrical resistance
    the property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electrical energy to other forms of energy

    • things that affect resistance in wires:
    • -width - bigger width means less resistance
    • -length - shorter means less resistance
    • - Temperature - colder means less resistance
    • - Material - some materials have less resistance than others

    • series - Rt=R1+R2+R3
    • parallel - Rt=R1=R2=R3

  19. resistor
    a device used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount

    -can be a load or a resistor that only resists
  20. load
    a resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound or light

    • -light bulb
    • -motor
    • -speaker
  21. potential difference
    (voltage) the difference between the electric potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit

    measured in volts

    parallel - Vt=V1=V2=V3

    series - Vt=V1+V2+V3

  22. volt
    the unit used for potential difference

    -is equivalent to one joule per coulomb.
  23. circuit diagram
    A diagram that uses standard symbols in order to represent the components in an electrical circuit and their connections

  24. Series circuit
    A circuit where there is only one path that electons can flow.

  25. Parallel circuit
    A circuit where there are more than one path in which electrons can flow.

  26. Ohm's law
    The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance

  27. Ohm (Ω)
    The unit for resistance
  28. Superconductor
    A material in which electric charge can easily flow with no resistance.
  29. Non-ohmic
    Something that does not follow ohm's law

  30. Loads in series
    Loads that are one after another on one path

  31. Loads in parallel
    loads in a circuit that are parallel to each other (each has its own path in the parallel circuit)