Psychology 101

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Anonymous
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286549
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Psychology 101
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2014-10-21 23:12:21
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Critical thinking Biology mind nervous system
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Nature/Nurture, Biology, Nervous System, Critical Thinking
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  1. Overconfidence Error
  2. Critical Thinking
    Using knowledge to carefully examine an issue. Helps us understand why people do the things they do. Does this make sense?
  3. Hindsight Bias
    • "I knew it all along"
    • The part of our mind that tells us that something was blatantly obvious.

    • Why it's called a bias:
    • The mind builds info based on what we already know, we favor old info
  4. OverConfidence
    Humans think they know more than they do, leading to them having more confidence and often incorrectness.
  5. Two issues with overconfidence:
    1. We perceive events in random order

    2. We overestimate accuracy and time
  6. Accuracy by Scientific Method
    • 1. Curiosity
    • 2. Skeptisim
    • 3. Humility
  7. Curiosity
    Always asking new questions
  8. Skepticism
    Definition: 

    • not accepting a ‘fact’ as true
    • without challenging it; seeing if ‘facts’ can withstand attempts to disprove
    • them
  9. Humility
    • seeking
    • the truth rather than trying to be right; a scientist needs to be able to
    • accept  being wrong.
  10. Hypothesis
    A testable prediction
  11. Replication
    Can your test results be replicated?
  12. Theory
    A set of principles built on observations and facts
  13. Case Study
    • observing
    • and gathering information to compile an in-depth study of one individual
  14. Naturalistic Observation
    • gathering
    • data about behavior; watching but not intervening

    Studies broad population
  15. Surveys and Interviews
    • having
    • other people report on their own attitudes and behavior

    Randomized, and be careful about wording
  16. Correlation
    an observation that two traits or attributes are related to each other



    • : a measure of how closely two factors vary together,
    • or how well you can predict a change in one from observing a change in the
    • other
  17. Experimentation
    • manipulating one factor in a
    • situation to determine its effect
  18. Placebo effect
    • experimental effects that are caused by expectations about the
    • intervention
  19. Placebo
    an inactive substance or other fake treatment in place of the experimental treatment.
  20. Double-Blind Experimentation
    • neither participants nor research staff knows which participants are in the
    • experimental or control groups.
  21. Random Assignment
    • randomly selecting some study participants to be assigned to the control
    • group or the experimental group.

    How we make sure the groups are the same in every way:
  22. Control Group
    A group with a maniuplated variable



    Example:  two groups of children have ADHD, but only one group stops eating refined sugar.

    Refined sugar group is control
  23. Dependent Variable
    The variable that changes in response to the manipulations of the independent variable
  24. Independent Variable
    The experiment that is being studied. The variable that is being introduced to an experiment.
  25. Confounding variable
    The other variable that may have an effect on the results.



    • ••Did ice cream sales
    • cause a rise in violence, or vice versa? 
    • There might be a confounding variable: 
    • temperature.

    Dealing with confounding variables: Experimentation
  26. Experimentation
    • An experiment is
    • a type of research in which the researcher carefully
    • manipulates a limited number of factors (IVs) and measures the impact on other
    • factors (DVs).



    • *in
    • psychology, you would be looking at the effect of the experimental change (IV)
    • on a behavior or mental process
    • (DV).
  27. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean
    The average in a set of numbers
  28. Measures of Central Tendency:
    The middle number in a set of numbers
  29. Measures of Central Tendency: Mode
    The number that occurs most often in a set of numbers
  30. Measures of Central Tendency: skewed
    distribution
    When way-out scores make data lopsided
  31. Measures of Central Tendency: Range
    The gap between the highest and lowest points of data
  32. Measures of Central Tendency: Standard Deviation
  33. calculation of the average distance of scores from the mean
  34. Phrenology
    Phrenology

    • (developed by
    • Franz Gall in the early 1800’s):

    • the study of bumps on the skull and their relationship to mental abilities and
    • character traits



    • Phrenology yielded one big idea--that the brain might have different areas that do
    • different things (localization of function).
  35. Axon
    Passes messages away from the cell body to other muscles, glands, or neurons
  36. Dendrite
    Receive messages from other cells
  37. Myelin Sheath
    A fatty layer that covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed up neuron impulses
  38. Cell body
    The cell's life support centure
  39. Action Potential
    A neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave. The wave movess down an axon, and is made up of ion exchanges moving in and out
  40. The synapse
    The gap between cells.
  41. Neurotransmitters
    Chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap
  42. Reuptake
    The recycling of neurotransmitters
  43. The Central Nervous System
    • The central nervous system [CNS]
    • consists of the brain and spinal cord.

    • The CNS makes decisions for the
    • body.
  44. The periphrael nervous system
    • The peripheral nervous system
    • [PNS] consists of ‘the rest’ of the nervous system. 

    The PNS gathers and sends  information to and from the rest of the body.
  45. Nerves
    • Nerves
    • are part of the peripheral nervous system and
    • connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to the central nervous system.
  46. Endocrine System
    What is it
    Parts
    Functions
    Hormones
    The endocrine system refers to a set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones.
  47. The Limbic system
    • §emotions
    • such as fear and aggression. 

    • §basic
    • drives such as hunger and sex.

    §the formation of episodic memories.
  48. Cognitive Neuroscience
    A branch of science that studies the brain's activity based on cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)
  49. Dual track processing:  Conscious
    “high” track:
    • our
    • minds take deliberate 
    • actions we know
    • we are doing

    •  Examples: problem solving, naming an object,
    • defining a word
  50. Dual Track Processing: Unconscious “low” track:
    • our minds perform automatic
    • actions,
    • often without being aware of them

    • Examples: walking,
    • acquiring phobias, processing sensory details into  perceptions and memories
  51. Selective attention
    • §There
    • are millions of bits of information coming at our senses every second.

    • So,
    • we have the skill of selective attention; our
    • brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice.
  52. Selective Inattention
    • §we
    • can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation even when other conversations
    • are going on around us. This is known as the cocktail
    • party effect.

    • The
    • bad news: we can hyperfocus on a conversation

    Selective hearing
  53. Change Blindness
    Failing to notice changees in the environment
  54. Intattentional blindness
    Failing to see objects because our focus is directed elsewhere
  55. Choice Blindness
    Being tricked into thiinking you are tasting or seeing one thing by experience
  56. Sigmund Freud on why we dream about what we dream about
    • Sigmund Freud believed there was often a hidden “latent content” (conflicts, worries,
    • and urges) underneath the symbolic “manifest
    • content” (the plot, actions, and images recalled)
    • of dreams.
  57. The circadian rythem
    • The body’s natural 24-hour cycle,
    • roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light and dark.

    • Over
    • the 24 hour cycle, the following factors vary, rising and falling over the
    • course of the day and night:

    • §body
    • temperature

    • §arousal/energy
    • §mental
    • sharpness



    • Daily rhythms vary from person to person
    • and with age.

    General peaks in alertness:

    §evening peak—20-year old “owls”

    §morning peak—50-year old “larks”
  58. Individual needs for sleep
    New born to adult
    • §in general, newborns need 16 hours of
    • sleep, while adults need 8 hours or less

    • §Individual (genetic) variation: some
    • people function best with 6 hours of sleep, others with 9 hours or more
  59. Hypnosis
    • Hypnosis is a social interaction in which
    • one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain
    • perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
  60. Tolerance
    • Tolerance of a
    • drug refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use.

    • Tolerance feeds addiction because users
    • take increasing amounts of a drug to get the desired effect.
  61. Withdrawal
    • §(painful symptoms of the body
    • readjusting to the absence of the drug).

    • §Withdrawal worsens addiction
    • because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms.
  62. Depressants
    • Depressants are chemicals that reduce neural activity and other body
    • functions.

    Alcohol, barbituates, opiates
  63. Opiates
    • §Opiates depress nervous system
    • activity; this reduces anxiety, and especially reduces pain.

    • §High doses of opiates produce
    • euphoria.

    • §Opiates work at receptor sites for
    • the body’s natural pain reducers (endorphins).

    Morphine, heroine
  64. Stimulants
    • Stimulants are drugs which intensify neural activity and bodily
    • functions.



    • Some physical effects of stimulants: dilated pupils, increased breathing and
    • heart rate, increased blood sugar, decreased appetite





    • Examples
    • of stimulants:

    §Caffeine

    §Nicotine

    • §Amphetamines,
    • Methamphetamine

    §Cocaine

    §Ecstasy
  65. Hallucinogens
    LSD, Weed



    • §interfere with serotonin
    • transmission.

    • §This causes hallucinations--images and other “sensations” that
    • didn’t come in through the senses.



    • §binds
    • with brain cannabinoid receptors.

    §Effect on consciousness:

    • §amplifies
    • sensations

    • §disinhibits
    • impulses

    • §euphoric
    • mood

    • §lack
    • of ability to sense satiety



    Marijuana/THC:

    • What
    • Happens Next?



    • §Impaired
    • motor
    • coordination,  perceptual ability,
    • and reaction time

    • §THC
    • accumulates in the
    • body, increasing the effects of next use

    • §Over
    • time,
    • the brain
    • shrinks in areas processing memory and emotion

    • §Smoke
    • inhalation damage
  66. Behavior Genetics
    study of how heredity and environment contribute to human differences
  67. Genes
    • Genes
    • are parts of DNA molecules, which are found in chromosomes in the nuclei of
    • cells.


    The building blocks of heredity and development

    The human genome contains 20-25k genes
  68. Chromosome
    • threadlike structure made largely
    • of DNA molecules

    Human genome contains 46 chromosones, in 23 matched sets. We receive half of our chromosomes from each parent
  69. DNA
    a spiraling, complex molecule containing genes
  70. Genome
    An organisms entire collection of genes
  71. Temperment
    • §defined
    • as a person’s general
    • level and style of emotional reactivity).


    • §According
    • to
    • some researchers, three general types of temperament appear in
    • infancy:

    •“easy”

    •“difficult”

    • •“slow to
    • warm
    • up”
  72. Heridibility
    • §the
    • amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors.

    • §This DOES
    • NOT tell
    • us the proportion that genes contribute to the trait for any one person.

    • §The
    • heritability of a trait also does not tell us whether genetics explain
    • differences between groups/populations.
  73. Evolutionary Psychology
    • study
    • of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of the
    • human mind, traits, and behaviors.

    Topics include natural selection and adaptation

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