psych quiz #4

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  1. reflexive self
    what do you think of yourself
  2. self-concept
    • sum total of a person's thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object
    • explains situational behaviors
  3. multiple selves
    • besides who we are, we hold self-concepts of possible selves
    • a possible self is who we want to be (desired selves) and who we ought to be (ought selves)
  4. sources of self-knowledge
    • introspection
    • self-perception theory
    • social comparison
  5. introspection
    • often difficult and incorrect
    • we don't know what to conclude when looking inward
    • ex: why are you happy? would you give shocks in an experiment?
  6. self-perception
    • we infer our own attitudes and feelings from attributions of our own behavior
    • if i'm laughing, i must think it's funny
  7. self-perception
    • we infer our own attitudes and feelings from attributions of our own behavior
    • if i'm laughing, i must think it's funny
  8. Olson (1992)
    • control: canned laughter has no effect
    • contagious: canned laughter is contagious
    • inhibits: canned laughter inhibits laughing
    • ALL LAUGHEDImage Upload
  9. Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion
    • introspection first then self-perception
    •    - we notice an "arousal" (introspection)
    •    - we seek an attribution for this arousal (self-      perception)
    • causes you to infer your current emotion
  10. example of Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion
    Image Upload
  11. self-evaluation is _______
    • relative
    • ex: upward comparison = other has higher test grade 
    • downward comparison = other has lower grade
  12. social comparison
    • Mr. Clean/Mr. Dirty
    • job interview 
    • interact w/ Mr. Clean - upward comparison
    • interact w/ Mr. Dirty- downward comparison
    • then fill out self-esteem questionnaire
    • Results: Mr. Clean > low self esteem
    • Mr. Dirty > high self esteem
  13. implications of social comparison
    • people often ignore objective factors during evaluation
    • ex: Campus as a “fish pond”: better to be a big frog in a small pond than a small frog in a big pond
  14. interpersonal self
    • people have selves to help them interact w/ other people
    • having a self enables you to predict how others people will treat you
  15. looking glass self
    • we use others to perceive ourselves
    • what we think other people think of us matters, not their actual thoughts
  16. self-presentation
    • we try to create a public self-image for others
    • two main motives:
    •    - appear as positive as realistically possible
    •    - create an identity
  17. self-handicapping
    to help make favorable impressions, people sometimes deliberatley put barriers in their way
  18. self-esteem
    how we feel about ourselves
  19. better than average effect
    people see themselves as better than than average on any dimension
  20. lake wobegon effect
    all children are above average
  21. unrealistic optimism
    • believe that good things are more likely to happen to you than most other people and that bad things are less likely
    • depressed people lack this
  22. false consensus and uniqueness
    overestimate or underestimate extent to which others think and act as we do
  23. false consensus
    tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
  24. false uniqueness
    tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors
  25. executive self
    • self's ability to make decision, initiate actions, and exert control over the environment
    • people have need to feel like they have control over their lives
    •    - locus of control
    •    - meaning seeking
    •    - intrinsic motivation
  26. locus of control
    • the extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable or due to chance or outside forces
    • people with internal locus of control try harder, deal with setbacks better and are more successful
  27. meaning seeking
    • people believe that they can control event which are truly random
    • try to find meaning in accidents
    • people who find meaning cope better than people who don't
  28. self-determination theory
    when people feel like they have to do something they lose interest as soon as the reward is removed
  29. Test-Operate-Test-Exit (TOTE)
    • Test: Compare ideal with current state
    • Operate: Perform an action to help reach ideal state
    • Test: Effect of operation
    • Exit: If at ideal, otherwise repeat cycle
  30. depletion
    after exerting self-control, people's level if strength is decreased
  31. the self
    • reflexive self: who you are
    • interpersonal self: how you related to others
    • executive self: how we choose between alternatives
  32. prejudice and discrimination
    • attitudes towards groups and members of that group
    •    - overgeneralized
    •    - inaccurate
    •    - resistant to change
  33. components (stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination)
    • stereotypes: cognitive component
    •    - beliefs 
    • prejudice: affective component 
    •    - emotional reactions + discomfort
    • discrimination: behavioral component 
    •    - actions
  34. stereotyping
    • fixed way of thinking about people that doesn't allow for individual variation
    • "types" of people
    • foundation for prejudice but NOT prejudice
  35. flick study
    • people listen to audio tape of basketball game and focus on player named Mark Flick
    • people were told he was black to some, white to others
    • people who thought he was black said he played a better game, more athletic
    • people who thought he was white said he hustled more and was a smarter player
  36. prejudice
    • hostile or negative attitudes towards others based on group membership
    • emotional response
  37. emotion and prejudice
    emotions may be a better predictor of behavior than thoughts
  38. discrimination
    • hostile or negative acts towards others based on group membership
    • behaviors do not always follow attitudes
    • doesn't always come in negative attitude
    • ex: real-estate agents may only show blacks to houses in black neighborhoods
  39. discriminatory treatment
    • handling violent patients in an all-white psychiatric hospital
    • black patients more likely to get drugs at beginning than white patients
  40. video game discrimination
    • people were to respond if they saw a person with a gun
    • people responded quicker to a black guy on screen
    • weapon bias
  41. stereotype threat
    • besides clear negative outcomes, effects may be more subtle-stereotype threat
    • awareness that anything one does may confirm a stereotype
    • ex: black and white people given difficult english test and told that it was either to test stereotype threat or had nothing to do with it
    • black people did worse when they thought they were being tested of stereotype threat
  42. what causes prejudice
    • social cognition account
    •    - thoughts
    • self-esteem maintenance account (social dominance) 
    •    - feelings
    • realistic conflict account
    •    - behaviors
  43. social cognition
    • prejudice as the result of information processing
    • the way we think and organize info can lead us to form negative stereotypes and apply them
    • Many potential mechanisms:
    •    - out-group homogeneity
    •    - stereotype activation
    •    - illusory correlation
  44. out-group homogeneity
    • the perception that those in the out-group are more similar than they are
    • "they" are all the same
    • cognitive bias to see out-group members as alike 
    • may form the cognitive foundation to prejudice
  45. stereotype activation
    • the tendency for stereotypes to bias perceptions when they are "activated" by the situation
    • everyone knows the stereotype and it may affect our behavior unconsciously when activated
    • ex: when people overhear racist comment during debate b/t white and black person , they think the black person did a lot worse
  46. illusory correlation
    • believe that two variables are related when in fact they are not
    • remember info that is consistent w/ our beliefs or stereotypes and forget inconsistent info
    • pay attention to selected info 
    •    - think of someone and they call, you think your psychic
  47. illusory correlation
    • read info about group A+B
    • twice as much info on group A 
    • equal percentage of pos and neg about each group
    • people think A is more positive
    • pre-existing beliefs can blind people
  48. esteem maintenance
    prejudice as a motivation to fel good about the self
  49. minimal group paradigm
    way to test esteem motivation
  50. in-group bias
    • in minimal groups people selected to random groups
    • people tend to favor people in their groups more
  51. social dominance
    • I feel good when "we" are on top
    • example of esteem motivation
  52. realistic conflict
    • prejudice is not just something in our heads
    • real conflicts exist in the world
    • prejudice should rise and fall based on the amount of inter-group conflict present
    • tough times (less resources) → more conflict
    • Better times (more resources) → less conflict
Card Set:
psych quiz #4
2014-10-22 21:37:05
ualbany socialpsych joshisamoho

chapters 2+9
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