Cell Bio- Molecular Biology.txt

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Cell Bio- Molecular Biology.txt
2014-10-21 17:20:51
Molecular Biology

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  1. Animal in which "foreign" DNA has been incorporated into the genome; the foreign DNA is transmitted to the offspring.
    transgenic animal
  2. Describe the microinjection method of creating transgenic animals.
    • 1. inject foreign DNA into one pronuclei of a fertilized mouse egg
    • 2. transfer injected egg into foster mother
    • 3. breed mice expressing foreign DNA to propagate DNA in germ line
  3. Embryonic stem cells come from...
    the inner cell mass of a blastocyst
  4. The outer part of the blastocyst (ie. not the ESCs) is called the __________ and functions to...
    trophoblast; facilitate implantation and formation of the placenta (DOE NOT become the animal)
  5. ESCs can be cultured with specific hormones and growth factors to cause them to...
    differentiate into specific cell lineages
  6. _____________ retain totipotency.
  7. Cells that can form all cell lineages EXCEPT the trophoblast (placenta).
  8. An example of pluripotent cells.
    embryonic stem cells (which is why you must implant them into a blastocyst before you implant them into a surrogate mother, otherwise the placenta will not form)
  9. Sum of all developmental options available to a cell.
  10. Ability to form all lineages of the organism; in mammals, only the zygote and first cleavage blastomeres.
  11. Ability of adult stem cells to form multiple cell types of one lineage.
  12. Example of multipotent cells.
    hematopoietic stem cells
  13. Cells form one cell type.
  14. Example of unipotent cells.
    pancreatic beta cell
  15. Alters or changes cell potency; typically induces dedifferentiation; can be induced by nuclear transfer, cell fusion, genetic manipulation.
  16. Small pool of stem cells that retain multi- or pluripotency through adulthood.
    adult stem cells
  17. Example of adult stem cells.
    crypts of the small intestine
  18. Cell division resulting in daughter cells with two different fates.
    asymmetric cell division
  19. Asymmetric cell division occurs with...
    adult stem cells
  20. Induced pluripotent stem cells is using ________ to make...
    transcription factors; somatic cells pluripotent so they can be used like ESCs
  21. Describe cloning by embryo transfer/splitting.
    • 1. cow artificially inseminated
    • 2. zygotes develop into embryos in cow and then are removed at totipotent stage
    • 3. totipotent embryos are split in vitro
    • 4. embryos are placed in uteruses of several surrogate cows
  22. Mutated stem cells that exhibit resistance to chemotherapy and radiation.
    cancer stem cells
  23. The development of transgenic production animals that would express cloned genes that encoded gene products (proteins) that...
    could be isolated and used as human pharmaceuticals
  24. When producing transgenic animals for human pharmaceuticals, the embryo is created by in vitro fertilization, then the ______________ and ____________ are injected into the fertilized embryo. The embryo is then implanted into a surrogate mother, and the drug is produced from...
    DNA gene for the drug; mammary directing signal; proteins in mammary epithelial cells from he offspring
  25. In Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, mammary gland cells in _______ are isolated and fused by electric pulses with _________. these are cultured until the ________ stage, at which time they are implanted in the surrogate mother.
    Go phase; enucleated oocytes in metaphase of meiosis II; blastocyst
  26. Congenital stationary night blindness is caused by a homozygous four nucleotide __________,causing a premature stop codon.
  27. Congenital stationary night blindness is treated in Briards by constructing a ________ with a __________________; this compound is injected into the ________, saving vision!
    vector; functional canine RPE65 gene; retina
  28. Recombinant AAV has tropism for ___________ for _______________; this is the vector used for...
    long-lived, post-mitotic cells (muscle,liver); long-term expression; gene therapy to rescue vision in Briards with congenital stationary night vision
  29. In a cloned subunit gene for FeLV, the ________ is cloned and the gene encoding __________ is "subcloned" into a ___________, which is expressed in vitro; this protein product is used to immunize the cat.
    FeLV genome; p120; plasmid vector
  30. Canarypox virus is ___________ in mammalian hosts; recombinant canarypox viruses express _________ to stimulate a strong immune response but cannot _________.
    non-replicative; inserted genes; multiply or cause disease in the host
  31. Recombinant canarypox viruses do not require an ________.
  32. The equine west nile virus vaccine (Prevenile) there is limited or no __________, allowing ___________ that stimulate a protective immune response.
    replication of the virus; expression of these proteins