Anat- Heart.txt

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Anonymous
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286560
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Anat- Heart.txt
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2014-10-21 17:29:01
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Heart
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vetmed
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  1. Instead of being parallel to the spine and sternum, the heart is positioned ______________ within the ___________.
    at a 45° with the sternum; middle mediastinum (left of the midline)
  2. The heart is enclosed by the ___________ and is situated in the ___________, which contains...
    pericardium; pericardial cavity; the heart and a small amount of pericardial fluid
  3. The broad base of the heart points _________, and the apex, or __________, points _________.
    craniodorsally; left ventricle; caudoventrally
  4. The left side of the heart is called the _________ because...
    auricular surface; both the right and left auricles can be seen on the left side
  5. The right side of the heart is known as the ___________ because...
    atrial surface; both the right and left atria can be seen on this side
  6. What are the two interventricular grooves and where are they located?
    • 1. paraconal interventricular groove- left side, continues from under the left auricle.
    • 2. subsinuosal interventricular groove- right side, continues from under the caudal vena cava
  7. Superficial separation of the atria and the ventricles.
    coronary groove
  8. The pericardium is the ___________ of the heart, and it is divided into...
    fibroserous envelope; an outer fibrous layer and an inner serous layer
  9. The serous pericardium has the following layers...
    • 1. parietal layer- fused with the fibrous outer pericardium
    • 2. visceral layer (EPICARDIUM)- directly applied to heart
  10. The pericardial cavity is the space between the ___________ and the _____________.
    parietal and visceral serous pericardium
  11. The thick middle layer of the heart wall that is composed of cardiac muscle.
    myocardium
  12. The thin, smooth-surfaced layer lining the inside of the myocardium that is continuous with the lining of the blood vessels.
    endocardium
  13. The myocardium of the ___________ is 3-4 times thicker than the __________.
    left ventricle; right ventricle
  14. The the atria of the heart are the __________.
    receiving chambers
  15. The ventricles of the heart are the __________.
    ejecting chambers
  16. The right chambers of the heart contain ____________; the left chambers of the heart contain ____________.
    deoxygenated blood (venous); oxygenated blood (arterial)
  17. Blood enters the right atrium from...
    • Dorsal intercostal aa. --> azygous v. --------------->
    • Ventral intercostal aa. --> Internal thoracic v. ----> cranial vena cava + caudal vena cava = SINUS VENARUM ------> RIGHT ATRIUM

    The coronary sinus (which drains blood from the heart itself) also drains into the sinus venarum
  18. Transverse ridge of tissue between the two caval openings inside the right atrium (where the cranial and caudal vena cavas drain into the sinus venarum).
    Intervenous tubercle
  19. Slit-like depression where the fetal foramen ovale existed, allowing blood to pass from the right to left atrium.
    fossa ovale
  20. Why does a fetus need the foramen ovale, but it closes to become the fossa ovale after birth?
    A fetus is not breathing using its lungs with in utero; therefore, blood can travel directly between the two ventricles without going to the lungs first. Once a neonate breathes on its own, thi opening must close to force blood to travel to the lungs first to pick up oxygen.
  21. The fossa ovalis is caudal to the _______ on the _________ of the __________.
    Intervenous tubercle on the inside of the right atrium
  22. Interlacing muscles on the internal surface of the wall of the right auricle.
    pectinate mm.
  23. The smooth-surfaced, thick portion of the heart muscle in the right atrium; shaped like a semi-lunar crest.
    crista terminalis
  24. The crista terminalis is the muscle from which the _________ radiate in both atria; this also associated with the __________ (aka. ____________) IN THE RIGHT ATRIUM.
    pectinate mm.; sinoatrial node; pacemaker
  25. The right ventricle communicates with the right atrium via the ____________.
    atrioventricular valve
  26. The septal cusp of the atrioventricular valve continues to the septal wall of the ventricle by ____________, which are attached to the septal wall by ___________.
    chordae tendinae; 3-4 papillary muscles
  27. The muscular irregularities of the interior of both of the ventricular walls.
    Trabeculae carneae
  28. The right ventricle ejects ________ blood into the _______, which transports the blood to the _________, which subsequently send the blood to the _________.
    deoxygenated; pulmonary trunk; pulmonary arteries (left and right); lungs
  29. The pulmonary trunk is located...
    between the auricles
  30. Muscular strand that that extends across the lumen of the right ventricle from the septal to the parietal walls.
    trabecula septomarginalis
  31. Thin, concave fold of tissue that is present on the cranial part of the left interatrial septal wall; remnant of fetal passageway.
    valve of foramen ovale
  32. The left atrium receives ________ blood from the lung via...
    oxygenated; 5-6 pulmonary veins
  33. The left ventricle ejects blood to the _______.
    aorta
  34. The aortic fibrous ring and the atrioventricular fibrous rings are made up of...
    right and left fibrous trigones
  35. The right and left atrioventricular valves are made up of...
    septal and parietal cusps
  36. The right and left atrioventricular valves are ________ valves.
    bicuspid/ mitral
  37. The aortic valve is made up of...
    right, left, and septal semilunar valves
  38. The semilunar cusps of the aortic valve have _________ in the middle of their free borders.
    nodules
  39. The pulmonary valve is at the junction between the ______ and the _______.
    right ventricle; pulmonary trunk
  40. The pulmonary valve consists of...
    3 semilunar cusps (right, left, and intermediate)
  41. The sinoatrial node is at the ___________, the semilunar muscular crest at the opening of the right auricle.
    crista terminalis
  42. The atrioventricular node is ___________ to the ___________ of the right atrioventricular valve.
    craniodorsal; septal cusp
  43. The purpose of trabecula septomarginalis is....
    provides a shortcut for a bundle of the conducting tissue (atrioventricular bundles), ensuring a simultaneous contraction of all parts of the right ventricle.
  44. The only structure to pass through the lumen of the right ventricle (same in left ventricle).
    trabecula septomarginalis with enclosed atrioventricular bundles with conducting fibers
  45. Ligaments that go from the pericardium to the sternum and diaphragm, respectively.
    sternopericardial ligament; phrenicopericardial ligament
  46. The aorta comes out of the ________.
    left ventricle
  47. Th ascending aorta has what branches?
    right and left coronary arteries
  48. The aortic arch has what branches directly from it (not including ascending and descending aorta)?
    brachiocephalic trunk; left subclavian artery
  49. The brachiocephalic trunk has what branches?
    right and left common carotid aa.; right subclavian a.
  50. The right and left common carotid aa. supply...
    the head, face, and brain
  51. The right and left subclavian aa. supply the...
    neck, thoracic limb, and cranial portion of the thoracic wall
  52. The right and left subclavian aa. have what branches on their respective sides of the body?
    vertebral a., costocervical trunk, internal thoracic a., superficial cervical a.
  53. The vertebral a. ascends in the ________ of the ________ after branching from the _________.
    transverse foramina; 1st-6th cervical vertebrae; subclavian a.
  54. The costocervical trunk supplies the...
    first 3 intercostal spaces, muscles at the base of the neck, and muscles dorsal to the first few thoracic vertebrae
  55. The costocervical trunk has what branches?
    deep cervical a., dorsal scapular a.
  56. The internal thoracic a. supplies the...
    ventral structures of the intercostal spaces
  57. The superficial cervical a. supplies the...
    base of the neck and scapular region
  58. The descending aorta has what branches?
    dorsal intercostal aa., bronchoesophageal a.
  59. The left coronary a. comes out of the ___________ under the ______.
    ascending aorta; left auricle
  60. The left coronary artery has what branches?
    paraconal interventricular branch; circumflex branch
  61. The circumflex branch of the left coronary artery curves around the ________.
    coronary groove
  62. The right coronary artery comes from under the ______ and runs....
    right auricle; down the right side of the heart
  63. The great cardiac (coronary vein) arises at the _______ and runs in the ________.
    apex of the heart; paraconal interventricular groove
  64. The great cardiac (coronary) vein runs in the _________ and empties into the _______, which drains into the _______.
    paraconal interventricular groove; coronary sinus; right atrium
  65. The azygous vein has what branches?
    dorsal intercostal veins
  66. The cranial vena cava has what branches?
    costocervical vv., internal thoracic v., right and left brachiocephalic vv.
  67. The right and left brachiocephalic vv. have what branches on their respective sides of the body?
    subclavian vv., internal jugular vv., external jugular vv.
  68. The connective tissue between the pulmonary artery and aorta that closes by one week of age; remnant of fetal communication between these arteries before breathing outside the body.
    ligamentum arteriosum
  69. The ligamentum arteriosum is a fetal remnant of the _______; failure to close this structure after birth can result in....
    ductus arteriosus; patent ductus arteriosus
  70. What are the parts of the central nervous system?
    brain and spinal cord
  71. What are the parts of the peripheral nervous system?
    cranial nerves and spinal nerves
  72. What are the parts of the autonomic nervous system?
    sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  73. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is the __________ division; the parasympathetic division is the _________ division.
    thoracolumbar; craniosacral
  74. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system functions in...
    fight or flight (norepinephrine)
  75. The neurotransmitter of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is __________ and its purpose is...
    norepinephrine; associated with conditions of stress
  76. What are the 6 parts of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    sympathetic trunk and ganglion, cervicothoracic ganglion, vertebral nerve, middle cervical ganglion, ansa subclavia, cardiac nerves
  77. The neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is _______ and its purpose is...
    acetylcholine; associated with normal homeostatic activity
  78. The parasympathetic division of the autonomic NS is associated with _________.
    anatomic structures
  79. What 4 cranial nerves are associated with the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    CN III, VII, IX, X
  80. What are the 3 parts of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    vagus nerves (left and right), recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagosympathetic trunk
  81. The vagus nerve of the ___________ of the autonomic nervous system splits into...
    parasympathetic division; dorsal and ventral vagal trunks (on each, the right and left sides)
  82. The vagosympathetic trunk is from the __________ to the ___________.
    cranial to middle cervical ganglia

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