Card Set Information
What are the four main components of a vertebra?
body, arch (pedicle and lamina), foramen, and processes
What are the purposes of the processes of the vertebral arch?
articulation with adjacent vertebral arches or attachment of muscles and ligaments
What are the 3 types of processes on the vertebral arch?
transverse, articular, and spinous
The ______ and the ______ together form the vertebral foramen.
body; vertebral arch
Successive vertebral foramina form the _______, which...
vertebral canal; houses the spinal cord, encased in its meninges
Which structure exits through the intervertebral foramen?
ventral branches of the spinal nerves
The "cushion" between each vertebra.
What are the two components of each intervertebral disc?
anulus fibrosus (outer, circumferential collagenous fibers) and nucleus pulposus (inner gelatinous core)
The demifacet between each pair of vertebra is formed by the _______________ of each vertebra interacting.
cranial and caudal costal fovea
When the dog is standing in a normal position, the cranial scapular angle is apposed to the ________.
spinous process of T1
When the dog is standing in the normal position, the caudal scapular angle is apposed to the __________.
bodies of T4-5
When the dog is standing in the normal position, the shoulder joint is apposed to the _________.
ventral end of the first rib
When the dog is standing in the normal position, the olecranon is located...
below the ventral end of the 5th intercostal space
The fibers of muscles involved in inspiration run ________, and their function is to...
caudoventrally; turn ribs outward and forward
The fibers of muscles involved in exspiration run ________, and their function is to...
cranioventrally; turn ribs inward and backward
Scalenus m. function
Serratus ventralis m. function
Function- Depress the scapula and support the trunk
What are the two parts of the serratus dorsalis?
cranialis and caudalis
Serratus dorsalis cranialis m. lies deep to...
Serratus dorsalis cranialis m. function
Serratus dorsalis caudalis m. function
External intercostal mm. function
Internal intercostal mm. function
Rectus thoracis m.
Origin- 1st rib
Insertion- Ribs 2,3,4
Transversus thoracis m.
Insertion-2-8 costal cartilages
Spinal nerve exits through the _______, then...
intervertebral foramen; splits into dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) spinal nerve branches
The blood supply to the thoracic wall is from what 3 arteries?
dorsal aorta, costocervical trunk, internal thoracic aa.
Blood is supplied to the thoracic wall dorsally from the...
dorsal aorta and costocervical trunk
The first three dorsal intercostal aa. branch off of the __________, which is a branch of the _________ that supplies the __________.
costocervical trunk; subclavian a.; first three intercostal spaces
When you do surgery of the thorax, your incision should be closer to the _________ part of the rib in order to...
cranial; avoid the nerve that runs down the caudal aspect of each rib.
The thoracic wall is supplied with blood ventrally from the ______.
internal thoracic a.
The internal thoracic artery gives off branches, the ______________, which...
ventral intercostal aa.; anastomose with the dorsal intercostal aa.
The azygos v. starts at the ______ and runs _______, emptying into the ________.
last rib; cranially; cranial vena cava
intercostal veins drain into the _________.
The azygos vein runs _________ on the ________ of the body.
dorsally; right side
A vein that is sometimes present on the left side of the body, analogous to the azygos vein.
The ventral intercostal veins drain into the ________, which runs _________.
internal thoracic v.; ventrally
Bilobed lymphoid organ located in the neck/ cranial thoracic cavity; decreases in size with age.
The tracheobronchial lymph nodes are located at the ____________ and provide drainage for the ______________.
bifurcation of the trachea or farther out on the bronchi; lungs
The mediastinal lymph nodes drain...
the structures in the mediastinum and the tracheobronchial ln.
The membranous partition between the lungs.
The thoracic ducts runs ________ on the.......
cranially; right dorsal border of the aorta and ventral border of the azygos v.
Dilated structure that receives drainage from the abdominal and pelvic viscera and the pelvic limbs.
The thoracic duct runs on the ______ side until the ________, at which point it...
right; 5th thoracic vertebra; crosses the ventral surface of the 5th T vertebra and courses on the left side of the middle mediastinal pleura.
Sternal lymph nodes are located...
ventrally by the first rib
Intercostal lymph nodes are located...
in the intercostal spaces
The oval opening into the cranial part of the thoracic cavity.
The thoracic inlet is bounded bilaterally by the ___________, dorsally by the _________, and ventrally by the ________.
first pair of ribs; the first thoracic vertebra; the manubrium
What organs traverse through the thoracic inlet? (7)
esophagus, trachea, vagosympathetic nerve trunks, recurrent laryngeal nerves, phrenic nerves, first two thoracic spinal nerves, and several vessels
Serous membranes that cover the walls of the thorax and lungs.
The parietal pleurae form....
right and left sacs that enclose the pleural cavities
The __________ covers the surface of the lungs.
The __________ lines the pleural cavity.
The parietal pleura has the following designations:
costal pleura- lines the internal walls of the thorax (ribs)
mediastinal pleura- lines the space between the two lungs (separates the two pleural cavities)
diaphragmatic pleura- lines the diaphragm
Areolar tissue that attaches the costal and diaphragmatic pleurae to the underlying muscles,ligaments, and bones,
The cranial extent of the parietal pleura in the pleural cavity extending through the thoracic inlet.
Air in the pleural cavity, causing collapsed lungs due to loss of negative pressure.
Why is the pleural cupula clinically significant?
It may be mistakenly opened during caudal neck surgery or with a neck injury and cause pneumothorax
The _______ side of the pleural cupula is more extensive and should be considered with neck surgery or injuries.
Regions where the parietal pleura are directly applied to each other, forming a space.
Which pleural recess is clinically significant and why?
The costodiaphragmatic recess; it is in the space that you can safely perform thoracocentesis without puncturing a lung or other organ
The heart is located between the ________________.
3rd and 6th intercostal spaces
Thoracocentesis is done between the _____________, which is where the __________ is located.
(6th) 7th and 8th intercostal spaces ideally; costodiaphragmatic recess (costochondral junction)
What 7 organs are enclosed in the mediastinum?
thymus, heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, vagus nerves, and other nerves and vessels
The mediastinum is divided by the _____ into the following three regions:
heart; cranial, middle, caudal
The mediastinum is divided by the _______ into the following 2 regions:
roots of the lungs; dorsal and ventral
Why is pneumothorax almost always bilateral in dogs, cats, horses, and sheep but not in humans?
These animals have fenestrations in the mediastinal pleura, so negative pressure is removed from the entire pleural cavity when a puncture is on one side; humans do not have these fenestrations
What structures are included in the upper respiratory tract?
nasal cavity,, pharynx, larynx, trachea
The main function of the upper respiratory tract is.........; other functions include: (4)
conducting air to and from the lungs; modification of inspired air, thermoregulation, defense against harmful substances, olfaction
The main function of the lower respiratory tract is ...
gas exchange (oxygen from the air and carbon dioxide from the blood)
What structures are included in the lower respiratory tract? (3)
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
The cervical part of the trachea starts at the ________; the thoracic part ends at the _______.
cricoid cartilage (cartilage of the larynx); bronchi
The trachea enters the thoracic cavity to the _______ of the esophagus, the goes ________. It ends at the __________.
right; ventrally; base of the heart
The tracheal cartilage (rings) are _________ on the __________ side; this space is closed by __________. The rings are connected by ________.
incomplete; dorsal; tracheal muscle; annular ligaments of the trachea
The trachea bifurcates at __________ and goes into the ____________; the crest formed at the bifurcation is __________.
T4 or T5; left and right primary bronchi; tracheal carina
The tracheal bifurcation is ______ to the base of the heart.
Each lung has a ____________ that lies on top of the diaphragm and an ________ that lies at the thoracic inlet.
concave base; apex
The costal surface of the lungs faces ______ against the ______.
The mediastinal surface of each lung face the _____.
The diaphragmatic surfaces of the lungs face the ______.
The interlobar surfaces of each lung are...
the surfaces touching adjacent lobes
The left lung has ____ lobes, which are...
2; cranial and caudal
The right lung has ____ lobes, which are...
4; cranial, middle, caudal, acccessory
The cardiac notch is on the _______ lung, and it is...
right; a fissure b/w the cranial and middle lobes.
The cardiac notch is located in the ___________.
4th and 5th intercostal spaces
The left and right pulmonary arteries transport __________ from the __________ to ___________ via the ____________.
deoxygenated blood; right ventricle of the heart; each lung; pulmonary trunk
The pulmonary veins transport __________ from the ________ to the ________.
oxygenated blood; lungs; left atrium
Provides the regular systemic blood supply (nutrient) to the lower respiratory tract.
The bronchial artery descends from the aorta via the _____________ and is located at the __________.
right and left bronchoesophageal aa.; 5th and 6th intercostal aa.
Area where the vessels and bronchi enter the lungs.
aggregation of structures that enter the lung.
What is the triangular cranial area for auscultation and percussion of the lungs?
at the 5th rib, triceps and teres major mm.
What is the dorsal area for auscultation and percussion of the lungs?
5th to 11th ribs; back muscles
What is the basal (caudoventral) border for auscultation and percussion of the lungs?
6th rib at the costochondral junction to mid-8th rib to dorsal-11th rib
What are the 2 functions of the diaphragm?
aids in respiration, separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities
What are the nerves that supply the diaphragm?
left and right phrenic nerves
What are the 4 parts of the diaphragm?
central tendon, sternal part, costal part (ribs 8-13), lumbar part (right and left crus)
What are the 3 opening in the diaphragm b/w the abdominal and thoracic cavities?
aortic hiatus, esophageal hiatus, foramen vena cava
What 3 structures pass through the aortic hiatus?
aorta, azygos vein, thoracic duct
What 3 structures pass through the esophageal hiatus?
esophagus, its vessels, vagal nerve trunks
The foramen vena cava is located...
under the accessory lobe of the right lung
The most dorsal opening in the diaphragm is the _________.
The lower opening in the diaphragm is the _________ and it is on the _______ right.
Caudal vena cava; right