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What are the "Planned Change Steps in the Generalist Intervention Model"
- FOUNDATION FOR GENERALIST PRACTICEKNOWLEDGE SKILLS VALUES
- Step 1: Engagement
- Step 2: Assessment
- Step 3: Planning
- Step 4: Implementation
- Step 5: Evaluation
- Step 6: Termination
- Step 7: Follow-up >>>either reassess or discontinue contact
Know about Micro approach
Know about mezzo approach
- mezzo or group/family oriented approach
- pursure mezzo approact to involve some type of social or support group
Know about Macro approach
something that extends beyond the simple provision of help to an individual client and requires more than the solicitation of family or group involvement at the mezzo level.
Define generalist practice
generalist practice is the applicaton of an ecletic knowledge base, professional values, and ethics and a wide range of skills to target three primary principles, a practice context and four major processes.
- three primary principles
- 1. emphasis on client empowerment, strengths, and resiliency
- 2. importance of understanding how diversity characterizes and shapes the human experience and is critical to the formation of identity.
- 3. advocacy for human rights and the pursuit of social and economic justice
Conceptualizing Systems in Macro Practice
- macro practice is the application of generalist practice skills to larger organizational, institutional, or community systems.
- There are four types of systems critical to change process:
- The Macro Client System: any individual, family, group organization or community that will ultimately benefit from generalist social work intervention.
- Target System: the system that social workers must modify or influence in order to reach their goals and have clients benefit from the planned change process
- Change Agent System: the individual who initiates the macro-change process
- Action System: the people who agree and are committed to working together in order to attain the proposed macro change.
What are the different roles of professional social workers
- Enabler: provides support, encouragement, and suggestions to members of a macro client system so that the system may complete tasks or solve problems more easily and successfully.
- Mediator: resolves arguments or disagreements among varous parties or systems in disagreement.
- Manager: one who assumes some level of administrative responsibility for a social services agency or other organizational system. Administrators utilize three levels of skills- technical, people, and conceptual.
- Educator: provides knowledge and skills to other systems. Must be knowledgeable about the topics being taught and have good communication skills so information is conveyed clearly and is readily understood by the receivers.
- Analyst/Evaluator: determines whether a program or agency is effective.
- Broker: links a system of any size with community resources and serices.
- Facilitator: is one who guides a group experience
- Initiator: the person or persons who call attention to an issue
- Negotiator: an intermediary who acts to settle disputes and/or resolve disagreements
- Mobilizer: identifies and convenes community people and resources and makes them responsive to unmet community needs.
- Advocate: is active intervention on a client system's behalf to get needed resources that are currently unabailable, or to change regulations or policies that negatively affect that client system.
Utilize Conceptual Frameworks and strategies for Empowering Communities
- The goal of empowerment is to increase the abilities of individuals, families, and commuities to get what they need; influence how others think, act, or believe; and influence how resources are distributed.
- Empowerment is internal and comes from within individuals as they seek greater control over their lives.
- Bush (2004) identified five competencies needed to engage in effective empowerment: informational (knowledge and awareness), intellectual (consider how informational knowledge can be used to work with the client system), intrapersonal(having genuine affinity for the individual or community with whom he or she is working), interpersonal(communicating with genuineness and warmth), and interventional (ability to utilize knowledge and various skills in pursuit of empowerment) competence.
- By empowering community members, we are engaging in drawing out abilities that are already present in members, and teaching modeling new abilities.
- Be willing to help yourself as the social worker. Teach and model.
Identify Problems to address (7 steps)
- 1.) Identify Problems to address.
- 2.) review your macro Reality.3.) Establish primary goals
- 4.) Identify People of influence.
- 5.) Assess potential financial costs and benefits to clients and agency
- 6.) Review professional and personal Risk.7.) Evaluate the potential success of a macro change process.
What are the five competencies needed to engage in effective empowerment?
- 1. Informational competency – includes the
- knowledge and awareness social workers possess regarding the groups with whom they are working. Examples: communication styles, worldview, behavioral patterns, and life style
- 2. Intellectual competency – requires that the social worker consider how informational knowledge can be used to work with the
- client system. How best to approach a given group, anticipating challenges and planning for them.
- 3. Intrapersonal competency – honestly caring about the community and being committed to its empowerment.
- 4. Interpersonal competency – ability to
- communicate with genuineness
- 5. Interventional competency – utilize knowledge and skills in pursuit of empowerment such as identifying an appropriate intervention plan, engaging community networks and other resources in the change effort, monitoring and evaluating the process and outcome.
What does PREPARE stand for when identifying problems?
- 1.Identify Problems to address
- 2. Review your macro Reality
- 3.Establish primary goals
- 4. Identify People of influence
- 5.Assess potential financial costs and benefits to clients and agency
- 6. Review professional and personal Risk
- 7. Evaluate the potential success of a macro change process
What are the characteristics of community building efforts?
- Are based on clearly articulated and neighborhood-directed goals
- Include maximum participation by community residents
- Encourage building on existing assets and strengths
- Tailored to the specific neighborhood where the need exists
- Build on and strengthen shared social and community values
- Strengthen existing community institutions
- Reinforce social networks and linkages among people
What methods can be used to achieve capacity building?
- 1. Providing education and training to enhance relevant skills in working with groups to achieve identified goals
- 2. Providing opportunities for people to be successful in change efforts, which builds confidence and capacity in individuals
- 3. Helping people become more assertive with regard to their anger, needs, and frustrations
- 4. Making invisible issues visible so that they can be addressed
- 5. Strengthening social networks
What does community asset mapping look for?
Resources–human, financial, or material
CAM – Community Asset Mapping
Benefits of CAM
- CAM Categories
- Sources of information
- -family members
- -community members
- -beneficiaries of change
- -public resources such as: phone books, community resource handbooks, and official records
- Types of resources
- -individual skills
- -institutions-medical facilities, colleges, or universities
How do you evaluate progress?
- Clearly specify your objective and action steps in measurable terms – referred to as monitoring the ongoing operation
- Stabilizing change- deciding what additional effort, if any is needed to stabilize the change
- Terminate change effort when it is successful or unsuccessful
Identifying the professional Role of Social Workers in Neighborhoods and communities?
- According to the National
- Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics, each social worker is expected to
- 1.Enhance human well being and help meet the basic needs of all people, with particular attentions to the needs and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed and living in poverty.
- 2.Attend to the environmental forces that create,contribute to and address problems in living
- 3.Promote social justice and social change withand on behalf of clients
- 4.Be sensitive to cultural and ethnic diversity and strive to end discrimination, oppression, poverty and other forms of social injustice
- 5.Focus on individual well-being in a social context and the well being of society.
Generalist practitioners skills to effect change for clients including following:
- 1.Working with interagency committees or task groups to assess needs or respond to challenges facing multiple organizations.
- 2.Identifying areas where services are needed but not provided and suggesting new programs or projects
- 3.Advocating for changes in agency or social policy that prevent fair treatment of groups of clients
- 4.Working with professional associations such as NASW to promote laws that further social and economic justice
- 5.Collaborating with colleagues to help elect candidates that reflect values consistent with those of the profession of social work.
What are the functions of community?
- 1.Socializations defined as the transmission of values, culture, beliefs and norms to new community members.
- 2.The production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
- 3.Social control which involves setting limits on behavior by creating and enforcing laws via police and other official bodies.
- 4.Mutual Support meaning that community members take care of one another.
- 5.Providing for the participation of its residents. This means that residents have the opportunity to interact with others through recreating, talking, church etc
Community as an ecological and social system?
- Community as an ecological system perspective: Ecosystem or ecological theory emphasizes the importance of the transactions between systems within an environment. For example: Experience that many people of color have in their interactions with police departments. The tendency of law enforcement personnel to stop an African American driving through a predominantly white community definitely affects how the person of color views the police department. Thus, various group of a community might have very different perspective on social institutions. How people experience their social environment has major influence on their expectations about the future and their trust level in social institutions.
- Community as a social system perspective: Every community can be viewed as an social system with all of the associate characteristics including boundaries, homeostasis, stressors, task and maintenance functions and subsystems;
- Boundaries: could be physical or psychological or political.
- Homeostasis or equilibrium: Responding to changes and attempt to maintain the status quo when threatened by outside stressors.
- Stressors: Stressors are the forces that disrupt the homeostasis of a system. Ex; getting married, finding job etc.
- Task and Maintenance functions: They seek to maintain a range of services attend to the needs of multiple audiences, and respond to special interests groups. Task functions include mundane activities such as snowplowing, street maintenance etc. Maintenance functions serve to maintain the identity and health of communities.
Human Behavior perspective
Learning theory, a human behavior theory, suggests that much of our current behavior is the consequences of past learning. This theory can help us understand why individuals in an organization or community act the way they do. For example: being victimized by drive by shooting can cause an entire neighborhood to lock its doors, refuse to help neighbors, and keep children constantly indoors
What are the differences between urbanization and sub urbanization
- Urbanization: It is the trend in which multitudes of people mote to large metropolitan areas and way from rural, outlaying areas. The rate of urbanization is affected by transportation systems, communication systems, and employment systems.
- Sub Urbanization: Residents desert large cities and move to smaller communities nearby. This movement was encouraged by development of the interstate highway system, suburban tract housing, mass transit systems and tax advantages for home ownership.
What is program development? (also referred to as a social program?
A macro-intervention approach intended to initiate and implement a program when other necessary programs don’t exist or become inadequate to meet client needs.
What is a program?
an ongoing configuration of services and service provision procedure intended to meet a designated group of client’s needs
What do social programs provide?
Means to offer help and services to clients.
What are the two factors that differentiate macro generalist practice on one hand, and micro and mezzo generalist practice (small sized groups) on the other hand? Which is more difficult?
Macro generalist practice follows the basic planned change process of engagement, assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, termination, and follow-up used in working with individuals, families, and groups. First – the change process for macro involves many more people and systems than working with smaller sized groups. Second- a large part of macro gen practice requires support from colleagues and influencing decision makers to effect change at the macro level. Macro planned change process is more difficult than that of micro or mezzo.
What are the three major arenas in which you are most likely to target agency change?
undertaking some kind of project, developing a program, and changing an agency policy
Utilize a process for implementing macro system change
After completing the assessment and planning process, we discuss initiating and pursuing macro change within the community. The relationship between assessment/planning and implementation/evaluation is:
- 1.) Engagement
- goes into
- 2.) Assessment and 3.) Planning
- which is interchangable with
- 4.)Implementation and 5.) Evaluation
- goes into
- 6.) Termination and 7. Follow-up
The implementation process steps?
- 1. Start with an innovative idea
- 2. Muster support and formulate an action system
- 3. Identify assets
- 4. Specify goals, objectives, and action steps to attain them
- 5. Implement the plan
- 6. Neutralize opposition
- 7. Evaluate progress
A project example:
Nuevo Puente was able to notice designated group of at risk youth. To address their substance abuse problem, he emphasized the importance of understanding three key concepts with respect to this population – “resilience,” “self-esteem,” and “coping strategies”. As a result – he realized that theoretically, resilience would decrease their substance abuse. This program had three facets – 72-hour training used to enhance youth’s cultural pride, peer education and leadership programs teaching positive attitudes and empowerment skills, and involving teens in a range of community activities as well as preparing them for leadership roles. The result was positive – school attendance improved dramatically. Youths also developed greater pride in their heritage, learned the importance of group solidarity, and learned the importance of addressing all forms of substance abuse. This shows a way to develop a program when needed.
What are some examples of development ideas?
- 1. Helping older adults remain in their own homes
- 2. Encouraging volunteering to serve community needs
- 3. Organize Social Service Working Unions
- 4. DEVELOPMENT IDEAS ARE ENDLESS
What’s an example of starting with an innovative idea?
Begin with identifying a change agent. In this case, it will be Spiro. She’s concerned about a staffing issue. Using the assessment and planning process, she has considered a range of variables including organization resources and constraints, relevant people of influence, personal strength, and the risks involved. She knew that Child Protective Services Unit was in a similar predicament – desperately understaffed. He then went to the agency’s community Advisory Committee, explained the situation, and asked for help. He also went to local newspapers and altered them to his unit’s personnel shortage and the sunsequenct impact on clients. This was successful – they hired two additional staff members. He started with an innovative idea.
Advocating in managed care:
- Such legislation might include the right to information about a health plan’s procedures and policies, the right of access to a medical specialist without approval of a primary care doctor, the right to an independent appeals process, and the right to sue a health plan for damages when it improperly denies care.
- Improving client access to health care was a major goal of the Affordable Care Act.
- The act includes:
- • the right to a summary of benefits and coverage provided by health insurance
- • The right to appeal any denial of payments for health care services
- • Provisions of free preventive Health services
- • Prevention of limiting benefits to kids under 19 with preexisting conditions
- • Right to choose doctor of your choice within network
- • Prevention of insurance carriers from cancelling coverage because of an error on application
- • 26 and under can receive coverage under parent’s plan
- • Prevention of insurance companies of setting annual or lifetime limits on the amount they will pay in health care costs
Classical Organization Theory
emphasize that a specifically designed formal structure and a consistent, rigid organizational network of employees are most important in having an organization run well and achieve its goals. Employees don’t have a lot of input or freedom of how to do their job. Performance is quantified and measured.
Assess organizations and agencies:
- System: A system is a set of orderly and interrelated elements that form a functional whole. (nations, schools, newly married couple)
- Boundaries: are borders or margins that separate one entity from another. They separate one thing from another giving identity to the system. They establish how various units in a system relate to each other (university issues IDs to its students)
- Subsystem: is a secondary or subordinate system, a smaller system within a larger system.
- Homeostasis: is the tendency for a system to maintain a relatively stable, constant state of balance. If something disturbs the balance, the system will readjust itself and regain stability. Homeostasis is merely maintaining the status quo which may be ineffective, inefficient, or seriously problematic (someone leaves a job. There is temporarily a hole, but someone is reassigned to do the job.)
Representing, championing, or defending the rights of others.
Work on behalf of individual and families
Work on behalf of groups of people
– Negative treatment of individuals, often based upon their membership in some group (such as women) or upon some characteristic they share with others (such as disability).
Ensuring that others have the right to power, ability, and authority to achieve self-determination.
Refers to groups that experience serious limitations because others in power exploit them.
Those groups in society most likely to suffer the consequences of, or be at risk for, discrimination, economic hardship & oppression
Coordinated effort to achieve institutional change to meet a need, solve a social problem, correct an injustice or enhance the quality of human life
Social & economic justice
- Exists when every individual has opportunities, rights & responsibilities equal to those of all other members of a society. Opportunity to obtain employment, adequate housing, food, & medical care w/out experiencing discrimination or other forms of oppression.
Advocacy for change
Can be done in ways most social workers might not think about, like stepping back & thinking on a larger scale can produce benefits no amount of individual effort can create
Include persuasion, fair hearing, embarrassment of the target, political pressure, & petitioning. Persuasion includes, persistence, questioning & objectivity, or providing arguments on both sides of an issue.
Describe how participatory action research uses practice experience to inform scientific inquiry & research evidence to inform practice.
– A method of involving people affected by a problem in efforts to study the issue, identify carry out appropriate interventions, and evaluate the success of the effort. As such, its focus is on social action to bring about societal change
Identifying, obtaining, & maintaining support for the bill.
You need to identify who is against the bill and for the bill. Identify people who are neutral supporters is important because they will easily be persuaded later to support the bill. Obtaining is identifying who will be harmed or benefited by the bill as well as modifying it to suit all the different supporters to keep them on board. Maintaining the bill is gaining the support of state and federal agencies and even governor or president support which will help fund and get the bill approved.
According to the NASW Code of Ethics, what are the six core values of the Social Work profession?
- 1. Service
- 2. Social justice
- 3. Dignity and worth of the person
- 4. The importance of human relationships
- 5. Integrity
- 6. Competence
The difference between Social Work Values and Social Work Ethics is …
- • Values indicate what is good or desirable
- • Ethics designate what is right and correct
Ethics are sets of ___________ that guide the ____________ of professionals
Five dimensions of ethical decision making are
- 1.Understand legal duties and obligations
- 2.Be familiar with the state, local, and federal laws and regulations that affect the practice
- 3.Thoroughly comprehend the core social work values and be extremely familiar with the social work code of ethics.
- 4.Be able to identify those ethical principles and legal duties that pertain to specific social work practice situation
- 5.When several competing obligations apply, you need to be able to decide which take precedence
The NASW Code of Ethics provided ethical guideline for how to make decisions and practice social work in six general areas. Name them
- 1.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to clients
- 2.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to colleagues
- 3.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities in practice settings
- 4.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities as professionals
- 5.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to the social work profession
- 6.Social workers’ ethical responsibilities to the broader society
Name some of the ethical responsibilities to
- 1.01 Commitment to clients
- 1.02 Self-determination
- 1.03 Informed consent
- 1.04 Competence
- 1.05 Cultural competence and social diversity
- 1.06 Conflicts of interest
- 1.07 Privacy and confidentiality
- 1.08 Access to records
- 1.09 Sexual relationships
- 1.10 Physical contact
- 1.11 Sexual harassment
- 1.12 Derogatory language
- 1.13 Payment for services
- 1.14 Clients who lack decision making capacity
- 1.15 Interruption of services
- 1.16 Termination of services
Name some of the ethical responsibilities to colleagues
- 2.1 Respect
- 2.2 Confidentiality
- 2.3 Interdisciplinary collaboration
- 2.4 Disputes involving colleagues
- 2.5 Consultation
- 2.6 Referral for services
- 2.7 Sexual relationships
- 2.8 Sexual harassment
- 2.9 Impairment of colleagues
- 2.10 Incompetence of colleagues
- 2.11 Unethical conduct of colleagues
Name some of the ethical responsibilities in
- 3.1 Supervision and consolation
- 3.2 Education and training
- 3.3 Performance evaluation
- 3.4 Client records
- 3.5 Billing
- 3.6 Client transfer
- 3.7 Administration
- 3.8 Continuing education and staff development
- 3.9 Commitments to employers
- 3.10 Labor – management disputes
Name some of the ethical responsibilities as professionals (guidelines regarding …)
- 4.1 Competence
- 4.2 Discrimination
- 4.3 Private conduct
- 4.4 Dishonesty, fraud, and deception
- 4.5 Impairment
- 4.6 Misrepresentation
- 4.7 Solicitation
- 4.8 Acknowledging credit
Name the Social workers ethical responsibilities to the social work profession
- 5.1 Integrity of the profession
- 5.2 Evaluation and research
Name the ethical responsibilities to social work profession
- .6.1 Social welfare
- 6.2 Public participation
- 6.3 Public emergencies
- 6.4 Social and political action
What is the difference between Religion and Spirituality
- •Religion implies membership in a spiritual organization with customs, traditions and structure
- •Spirituality may or may not involve religion and reflects a personal, internalized view of existence.
Social workers, typically involved with vulnerable people in situations of pain or crisis, need a greater awareness of spiritual and religious issues. True or False
- •Tragedies such as the untimely death of a loved one force a person to confront the inexplicable
- •People nearing death often wonder whether there is an after life
- •Trying times may cause a person to question the meaning and purpose of life
- •Those subjected to serious disease or long-term oppression need some way to make sense of the experience.
Spiritual concerns such as hope, meaning, inner strength, and doubt are relevant in many clients’ lives.
True or False
In times of stress, a client’s spirituality may be a great source of strength. As social workers we may impose our religious and spiritual views upon the clients. True or False
- •The principle of self-determination clearly affirms that “social workers should never try to impose their own beliefs on clients”
It is very important for social workers to fully understand their own spiritual and religious convictions in order to maintain clear boundaries between their beliefs and those of the clients. True or False
It is best to learn about clients religious and spiritual beliefs from:
d)All of the above
If clients are not open to religious or spiritual aspects of their difficulties, it is inappropriate to bring these issues into counseling or to employ methods that are particularly based in religious or spiritual beliefs or practices. True or False