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Carbohydrate dietary RDA:
- 130 g/day, 45% - 65% from quality carbohydrate sources
- RDA is based on the CNS and PNS requirement for glucose as “sole” energy substrate in sedentary individuals.
- With 1 hour of moderate to high intensity exercise each day, and with 50% to 75% of the “exercise- calories” coming from glucose, it is reasonable to add at least 70 - 100 g/day to the recommended 100 g/day.
- A much more reasonable RDA for an active individual would be ~200 g/day
- 12 and 17 g/day for women and men of linoleic (omega 6)
- 1.1 and 1.6g/day for women and men of Alpha-linolenic (omega 3)
- should be 10-35% of CALORIC intake
- Linoleic is precursor for the synthesis of Arachidonic acid
- A-linolenic acid is the precursor for the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Sources of a-linolenic and linoleic acid
- linoleic acid: Corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean and peanut oils
- a-linolenic acid: soybean, flax and other seed oils (salmon contains EPA and DHA already)
**What does Linoleic acid make, and what does that produce?
- Linoleic (Omega-6) is the precursor for the synthesis of Arachidonic Acid (AA)
- AA makes both pro and anti-inflam
- PRO: prostoglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes
- and also…ANTI-inflam: LIPOXINS (Sends STOP signals for inflammation)
**What does alpha-linoleic acid make, and what do they produce?
- A-linolenic is a precursor for the synthesis of EPA and DHA
- EPA and DHA made into ANTI-inflammatory: RESOLVINS (Lipitor), PROTECTINS, MARESINS
Ascorbic acid RDA and common foods that contain this vitamin
- Vit C: 75 and 90 mg/day for women and men, respectively
- Found in citris fruits, spinach, broccoli, brussel sprouts
Vitamin E RDA and common foods that contain this vitamin
- a-tocopherol: 15mg/day for men and women
- Found in vegetable oils and wheat germ
What is the result of insufficiencies of antioxidant enzymes
- Vit C and E are the important antioxidant enzymes
- When these are low, they result in a LESSER ABILITY TO STABILIZE RADICALS, thereby allowing more oxidants to enter the cell membranes, cause leakiness of membranes by attacking unsat fas. This increase in oxidants and increase in Ca flow entering allows for increase in Protein kinase C, causing activation of NF-kB, leading to:
- 1. STRESS response (increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines ILs)
- 2. INFECTION and DAMAGE Response (increase in TNF)
Performance-related problem and health-related problem as a result of insufficient intake of antioxidant enzymes
- Need Vit C and E
- If not, increase in inflammatory responses and leaky membranes cause decrease in performance, with rates of ATP synthesis needing to be increased to compensate for this less efficient energy production. Continuation of this TNF damage response can be observed with OVERTRAINING SYNDROME (OTS)
- As a result of increased inflammatory responses due to leaky membranes and increased oxidants and Ca coming in thru the cell membrane causes Health problems, such as
- CHRONIC diseases: such as heart disease, this is caused without any damage needed, just the inflammatory response alone needed
How do Unsat contributing to chronic disease
- The c-c double bonds are more suceptible to radical attack, this damage of the membranes causes a leakiness of the membrane, allowing MORE Ca to enter into the cell, increasing signal transduction pathways, causing more inflammation via NF-kB and other signal.
- The oxidation of these phospholipids of the endo-reticulum causes an INCREASE in PHOSPHOLIPASE A2: this enzyme CLIPS off Arachidonic acid, which is the made into pro-inflammatory molecules prostoglandin, thromboxane and leukotrienes.
- This increase in inflammation is the cause of chronic disease such as heart disease