psych of learning and behavior test 2 part 2
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What happens when stimulus contingencies and response contingencies produce conflicting behavior?
the stimulus contingencies will generally dominate
an extreme, irrational fear reaction to a particular event
Phobia from a classical conditioning perspective?
it seems to represent a process of over-generalization
the rat was initially a NS, while the loud noise was a UR
Albert's fears of the rat seemed to grow weaker following a 30-day break
Albert's fear response was absent whenever he was sucking his thumb, suggesting that the fear conditioning was actually relatively strong
Difference between Little Albert's fear conditioning and conditioning of real-life phobias?
Real-life phobias often requires only one conditioning trial
Observational learning and its role in phobic conditioning
many phobias are acquired through observation of fearful reactions in others
display of fears by others (US) leads to fear in oneself (UR)
Example of Observational learning and its role in phobic conditioning?
Snake (NS) followed by a display of fear by others, lead to a fear in oneself (UR), and thus the snake becomes a CS which leads to fear in oneself, which is now a CR
Temperament and its role in phobic conditioning?
an individuals base level of emotionality and reactivity to stimulation (genetically determined)
It does not seem to affect the extent to which responses can be classically conditioned
Preparedness and its role in phobic conditioning?
a genetically based predisposition to learn certain kinds of associations more easily than others
We may have an inherited predisposition to develop fears to certain types of objects or events
History of control and its role in phobic conditioning
a history of being able to control important events in one's environment
Incubation and its role in phobic conditioning
the strengthening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposures to the aversive CS (this runs counter to the concept of extinction)
US revaluation and its role in phobic conditioning
phobic behaviors might sometimes develop when the person encounters a more intense version of the US than was used in the original conditioning
selective sensitization and its role in phobic conditioning
an increase in one's reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event
a CS that elicits one type of response is associated with an event that elicits an incompatible response
Systematic desensitization and how its used to treat phobias
involves pairing relaxation with a succession of stimuli that elicit interesting levels of fear
how is flooding used to treat phobias?
a behavioral treatment that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus, thereby providing maximal opportunity for the conditioned fear response to be exinguished
what is aversion therapy?
reduces the attractiveness of a desired event by associating it with an aversive stimulus
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