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Society and Religion
-Monarch progressively take away _____ power; townspeople lose rights to freedoms.
-Religious revolt seen as _____ to stay politically free
Social and Political conflict
-Reformation first in _____ imperial cities of Germany(Lutheran), Switzerland(Zwinglian).
- Some quickly turn, some slow, some mixed
- Economic and social prosperity - more _____ to reform.
1. _____ guild:literate, sophisticated, rapidly growing
2. Bullied groups: certain guilds with government control; regions with powerful _____
Popular Religions Movements and Criticism of the Church
- Exile in _____; Great Schism; Conciliar period; Renaissance _____
- Diet of Worms, German nobility present 102 oppressive, corrupting _____ burdens.
- In general, increasing frustration with catholic church by end of _____.
1. Lay Criticism: _____ laypeople knew more about the world, travels, post, printing, library.
a. Common goals: Religious _____; imitation of Jesus; members equal; modeled on New Testament
- The Modern Devotion(brothers of the common life a.k.a. The Modern Devotion)
1. Religious life of prayer and study without church commitments or abandoning the world
2. Centered around Zwolle and Deventerin in the Netherlands.
a. _____ public; civic minded
b. Nicholas of Crusa, Johannes Reuchlin, and Erasmus studied here.
3. Thomas a Kempis: Imitation of _____ - most popular religious book.
4. Called for personal piety; conservative teachings with no _____.
- Lay Control over Religious Life
1. Network of church offices _____: sense of regional identity, better regional administration.
a. Benefice - church sells offices to _____; often benefice holders didn't live in their diocese and badly administered them.
2. rulers/admins allowed/encouraged indulgences because it was _____.
a. Governments take more control of church properties, tax them.
- middle ages
- the modern devotion
- highest bidder
Martin Luther and the German Reformation in 1525
- _____ national religion reformation: Statues of Provisors and Paemunire/pragmatic sanction of Bourges.
- Martin Luther
1. Son of Thuringian _____; educated Mansfeld, Magdeburg where brothers of the common life and Eisentach were his teachers.
a. Attended U of Erfurt where he listened to William of Ockham and Gabriel Biel
b. Entered Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine in Erfurt; went to _____ and verified critisms; Augustian _____ in Wittenberg.
Justification by Faith Alone
- Did not believe humans could achieve God-required _____.
1. don't do good works for the sake of _____ or because of fear; faith will save you- then selflessly act.
2. God does not _____ good works because that would be God a puppet to man.
The Attack on Indulgences
- Priestly absolution transformed eternal penalty of sin into _____ penalty.
- indulgences originally given to _____ who could not complete penance.
1. John Tetzel preached indulgences good persuasively; Luther's 95 theses argued indulgence trivialized _____ into a product.
Election of Charles V
- Nuremberg humanists translated and distributed _____.
- Death of Emperor Maximilian 1 bought time for Luther.
- Exchange for votes, _____ promises to revive Imperial Supreme Court, Council of Regency, and consult with diet on major foreign and domestic affairs,
- Prevented _____ imperial action against reformers.
- 95 Theses
- Charles V
Luther's Excommunication and the Diet of Worms
- Challenges the infallibility of the _____ and inerrantcy of Church councils; defended _____.
- wrote Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and Freedom of a Christian.
1. Pope Leo's Papal bull Exsurge Domine declares him a _____; final bull of excommunication issued 7 months later.
2. argued before the Diet of Worms and ordered to _____;imperial ban declared him outlaw. Hid and disguised at Wart-burg Castle for a year - translated New Testament to German using _____.
- John Huss
The Protestant reformation challenged the aspects of the Renaissance, especially its _______ and its _______.
- tendency to follow classical sources in glorifying human nature
- loyalty to traditional religion
Protestants embraced many Renaissance values such as _______ and _______.
- educational reforms
- training of students in ancient languages
The Protestant Reformation occurred at a time of
sharp conflict between the emerging nation-states of Europe bent on conformity and centralization within their realms, and the self-governing towns and villages long accustomed to running their own affairs.
Many townspeople and villagers perceived _______ an ally in their struggle to remain politically free and independent.
The Reformation first broke out
in the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland, and the basic tenets of Lutheran and Zwinglian Protestantism remained in subsequent protestant movements.
The Reformation also caused deep social and political divisions because _______ sought Reform while others didn't.
- economically prospering guilds
- guilds with an economic stake in religion
- guilds who opposed the government
The Reformation would not have occurred if it not had been for _______.
- exile in Avignon
- The Great Schism
- The Concilliar period
- the Renaissance papacy
Between the _______ and the _____, laity and clerics began to seek a more heart-felt, idealistic religion.
- secular pretensions of the papacy
- dry teaching of Scholastic scholars
Factors that contributed to the lay criticism of the church
- increased knowledge of the world
- higher literacy
- common goal of religious simplicity
- a more spiritual church
- power to clergy as well as head