Popular Religions Movements and Criticism of the Church
- Exile in _____; Great Schism; Conciliar period; Renaissance _____
- Diet of Worms, German nobility present 102 oppressive, corrupting _____ burdens.
- In general, increasing frustration with catholic church by end of _____.
1. Lay Criticism: _____ laypeople knew more about the world, travels, post, printing, library.
a. Common goals: Religious _____; imitation of Jesus; members equal; modeled on New Testament
- The Modern Devotion(brothers of the common life a.k.a. The Modern Devotion)
1. Religious life of prayer and study without church commitments or abandoning the world
2. Centered around Zwolle and Deventerin in the Netherlands.
a. _____ public; civic minded
b. Nicholas of Crusa, Johannes Reuchlin, and Erasmus studied here.
3. Thomas a Kempis: Imitation of _____ - most popular religious book.
4. Called for personal piety; conservative teachings with no _____.
- Lay Control over Religious Life
1. Network of church offices _____: sense of regional identity, better regional administration.
a. Benefice - church sells offices to _____; often benefice holders didn't live in their diocese and badly administered them.
2. rulers/admins allowed/encouraged indulgences because it was _____.
a. Governments take more control of church properties, tax them.
- middle ages
- the modern devotion
- highest bidder