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What is the fluid mosaic model?
Explain the composition of the cells membrane
What is active transport?
Requires energy (by cell or organism)
What is osmosis?
- A specialized type of diffusion, involving the passage of water across a semipermeable membrane, moving an area of greater concentration of lesser concentration.
- No energy is required
What is phagocytosis?
- "cell eating" the cell takes in solid material
- amoeba's do this
What are the three postulates of the cell theory??
- 1. All living things are made up of cells
- 2. Cells are the fundamental units of life
- 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells (bio genesis)
What did Hooke contribute to science??
He named cells "cells"
What is the golgi complex?
the packaging and modifying center of the cell-takes goods (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) is receives from the ER and sorts them, modifies them or packages them in a membrane (sorts nucleus and modifies, them according to their protein in the cells)
What is chloroplast?
- Complex organelle found in plants (and some protistans)
- Has green pigment chlorophyll
- Site of photosynthesis
What is Endosymbiont Hypothesis?
- States that the mitochondria and chloroplast were once free living organisms (probably bacteria)
- Explains the hypothetic origin to coming into being of eukaryotic cells
What 3 structures found in plants??
- 1. large vacuoles
- 2. Cell Walls
- 3. Chloroplasts
What does the eukaryotic cell cycle consist of?
Consists of the main stages: Interphase/ Mitosis
What is Interphase?
- During cell growth and DNA Replication
- Chromosomes uncoiled (chromatin), cell carries out normal activities, but prior to cell division, chromosomes one replicated
What is mitosis?
What are the role of the chromosomes?
- To carry heredity instructions to tell the cells what to do
- Organisms genetic material associated with protein
What is the chromosomes number for a normal human cell?
46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
What is anaphase?
- Chromosome (chromotids sisters) are separated
- Separated from their center
- They move to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibers moving there
What is cytokinesis?
Division of cytoplasm
What is an enzyme?
- Protein that acts like a catalyst
- An organic catalyst, usually a protein
What is specificity?
- The enzyme is specific for 1 particular reaction, it will not speed up any other reaction
What is Active site??
- Location on enzyme when substrate binds
- A location on an enzyme molecule when the reactants come together and react
What is the rate of reaction?
- Enzymes increase the rate of reactions
- Make the process speed up
What is the amount of activation energy??
Activation energy (energy required for a reaction) is lowered when any catalyst is used
What is the importance of ATP?
- To store and release energy, to work
- =energy molecule, required for all cellular process
What are 3 good things about enzymes?
- 1. Can be reused
- 2. Specificity
- 3. Speed up reactions
What formula is this for?
Is photosynthesis considered an exergonic or endergonic process?
What is the location and role of chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll is a pigment that traps light energy
What is light independent reactions or carbon fixation?
- Carbon dioxide helps to form glucose (Food and sugars) for the plant
- ATP provides energy to drive these reactions, CO2 is incorporated with precursors already to form sugars. NADPH releases the hydrogen captured in the light reactions to be incorporated into sugar
What is coenzyme NADP?
carries hydrogens between light dependent and light independent reactions
What is this formula for?
What are two main stages in cellular respiration?
- 1. Glycolysis-located in the cytoplasm broken down to pyruvate and 2 ATP molecules are made
- 2. The electron transport system located in the mitochondria, where the most ATP is made
Where is the most ATP made?
In the mitochondria
Where is the cellular location of aerobic reactions?
In the Mitochondrian
How does fermentation differ in 4 ways?
- 1. Occurs when no oxygen is available
- 2. Allows glycolysis to keep operating
- 3. Muscle cells, some bacteria and some fungi under go fermentation
- 4. Glycolysis part of fermentation
What is Alcoholic fermentation?
- Occurs when no oxygen is available
- A 2 carbon alcohol and CO2
What is lactic Acid fermentation?
- Occurs when no oxygen is available
- A 3 carbon lactic acid
What are the four reason why plants are crucial to our existence?
- 1. Food- almost everything we eat comes from plants
- 2. Oxygen- oxygen we breathe is derived from photosynthesis
- 3. Medicines- many are extracted from plants
- 4. Wood- used for concentration, furniture, firewood, and other uses
What is sporophyte?
involves some individuals of any kind of plant living an asexual phase, uses spores
What is vascular?
A plant with conductive tissue, has inner tubes to transport materials
What is phloem?
conducts food (sugars) generally from the leaves to the other parts of the plant
What are the three plant tissue systems?
- 1. Dernal Tirssue
- 2. General Tissue
- 3. Vascular Tissue
What is dernal tissue?
like skin for protection
What is ground tissue?
much of the interior of plant organs, for food making, storage support
What is vascular tissue?
Like pipes, carry water, minerals, sugary food
What are the two root systems?
What is minocot?
- Fibrous root system
- No main roots
What is dicot?
- Tap root system
- One main root
What are the role of root hairs?
- Perform the task of absorbing water and minerals for the plant
- Tiny epidermal (skin) extenstions
- Located on young growing roots
What are the 4 functions of the stems?
- 1. Support the leaves and flowers
- 2. Transport material's between root and leaves
- 3. (in some) produce food (as in cacti)
- 4. Store substances (ex. water storage in cacti, sugar storage in potatoes)
What is the general function of leaves?
Photosynthesis or food manufacture (most important)
What is stomata?
Tiny holes in leaf to allow for gases and water vapor exchange with outside
What is Mesophyll?
Made of cells that carry on photosynthesis
What is Sepal?
- Often green
- Protects inner part of the flower
What is a seed?
a reproductive structure that contains an embryonic plant and stored food, protected by the fruit
What is dispersal?
By wind and animals
What are the two primary ways seeds are dispersed?
What is secondary growth?
growth outward, in diameter on roots and stems
What is the relationship of auxins to growth?
growth hormones making plant growth either slower or faster
What is tropism?
A plant growth movement toward something, like light