A closed path (or circut) that electrons (that are powered by a source) travel down to create electricity. There are two types of circuts, a parallel circut, and a series circut.
A cell that generates current by chemical reactions. Chemical reactions involving two metals (either the same or different) that are separated by a conductive solution.
The "batteries" (AA, A, D etc.) are actually cells, we pronounce the name wrong. When two or more cells are put together, then it's a battery.
One of the two metal positive or negative terminals in a cell or battery.
A conductive solution or paste. It also determines if a cell is dry or wet.
A cell that uses electrolytes in the form of a paste.
A cell that uses electrolytes in the form of liquid.
A primary cell is a cell that can not be used again.
Example; AA batteries are primary cells, because you have to replace them every so often.
A secondary cell is a cell that is rechargeable.
Example; The battery on your phone is rechargeable.
A fuel cell is a cell that produces its energy by chemical reactions of fuel, stored outside the cell. Another form of a fuel cell is a hydrogen fuel cell that generates energy by combining hydrogen from tanks or cartridges with oxygen from air.
A solar cell converts solar energy into electrical energy.
A positive or negative location on a cell, that MUST be connected to all other components for the circut to work.
A switch controls weather a cell is connected or disconnected. It's not required, but it's very convenient.
Example; The button that turns a flashlight on or off, in the circuit is a switch. It'll open or close to stop the flow of electrons to getting to the bulb to create light.
A circuit containing a gap or break. In the example below, the circuit is open because the switch has opened the circuit.
The movement rate of electric charge. Electric charge meaning electrons, so basically, electric current is the flow of electrons.
Since electric charge is said to be a very large number of electrons, the unit coulomb was developed to measure large quanitites of electric charge. One coulomb is equal to
6.25 x 1018
An ampere is a unit used to define the measurement of current. An ampere is equal to one coulomb per second.
Free electrons colliding with each other create electric resistance because these collisions interfere with the flow of electrons. Electrical resistance hinders electric current and converts energy into heat energy.
A device used specifically to add electrical resistance to a circuit. In other words to decrease the current in a circuit by a specific amount.
A resistor or any other device that converts energy into heat, motion, sound, or light.
Potential difference is the difference in energy between two points in a circuit.
A volt is the unit used to measure potential difference. It is equal to one joule per coulomb.
A diagram that uses symbols to represent a circuit.
A series circuit is a circuit with no paths, in the form of a circuit diagram it would be either a simple square or rectangle.
A parallel circuit is a circuit with more than one path. In terms of a circuit diagram, it would be drawn with lines inside the circuit.
German physicist, Georg Ohm developed a series of equations to find potential difference, resistance, and current.
An Ohm is a unit used to measure resistance.
A superconductor is any material that doesn't have any resistance when electric charge is flowing through it.
Example; Helium is a superconductor.
Anything that doesn't follow ohm's law.
Example; The filament of an incandescent light bulb.
Loads In Series
Loads that are added in series. They increase the resistance in the circuit.
Example; Many light bulbs in series glow less brightly together, but they would glow brighter the less light bulbs there were, because of the resistance.
Loads In Parallel
Loads that are in parallel. Adding more loads to a parallel increases the current.